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The National Academies

ACRP 11-03 [Active]

Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices

  Project Data
Funds: FY 2005/2006, $500,000
FY 2007, $700,000
FY 2008, $500,000
FY 2009, $600,000
FY 2010, $900,000
FY 2011, $770,000
FY 2012, $1,270,000
FY 2013, $1,160,000
FY 2014, $1,053,000
FY 2015, $1,180,000
FY 2016, $1,220,000
Staff Responsibility: Theresia H. Schatz
Research Agency: Transportation Research Board
Principal Investigator: Gail R. Staba
Effective Date: 1/31/2005

Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem.

There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, an ACRP synthesis program has been established similar to those currently in existence in both the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). These programs search out and synthesize useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor will constitute an ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice series.

The objective of this project is to provide a synthesis program for the ACRP. A synthesis is a relatively short document (40-60 pages) that summarizes existing practice in a specific topic area based typically on a literature search and a survey of relevant organizations (e.g., airports). Synthesis reports are most valuable when they are focused on issues or problems common to many organizations. The primary users of the reports are the practitioners who work on those issues or problems using diverse approaches in their individual settings. Note that syntheses merely summarize existing practice. They do not undertake new research, nor do they contain policy recommendations.

The following factors are considered in the selection process for synthesis topics:
  • The problem should be widespread enough to generate broad interest in the synthesis.
  • The problem should be timely and critical with respect to economic impact, safety, or social impact.
  • The problem is appropriate if current practice is non-uniform or inconsistent from agency to agency, or if the validity of some practices appears to be questionable.
  • The quality and quantity of useful available information should indicate a need to organize and compress that which has already been learned and written on the topic.
  • The topic should not be one where ongoing research or other activities in progress might be expected to render the synthesis obsolete shortly after completion.
For each specific synthesis topic selected, TRB forms a topic panel of experts in the subject area to guide the researchers in organizing and evaluating data collected and to review the synthesis report. At its first meeting, each topic panel thoroughly discusses the topic, refines the tentative scope, suggests sources of information, and selects a consultant based on expression of interest received typically in response to an industry wide solicitation. Following this meeting, an agreement is negotiated with the selected consultant to gather information on the topic, synthesize it, and draft a report. For each synthesis topic, the objectives are (1) to locate and assemble documented information; (2) to learn what practice has been used for solving or alleviating problems; (3) to identify all ongoing research; (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; and (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the useful information that is acquired. Each synthesis will be an immediately useful document that records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation.

11-03/Topic S01-01 Innovative Finance and Alternative Sources of Revenue for Airports

 TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 1: Innovative Finance and Alternative Sources of Revenue for Airports explores alternative financing options and revenue sources currently available or that could be available in the future to airport operators, stakeholders, and policymakers in the United States. The report examines common capital funding sources used by airport operators, a reviews capital financing mechanisms used by airports, describes various revenue sources developed by airport operators, and a reviews privatization options available to U.S. airport operators. 

11-03/Topic S01-02 Airport Economic Development Opportunities and Incentives

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 19: Airport Revenue Diversification explores the different sources of revenue for airports, separating core aeronautical revenue from ancillary revenues. The report also examines ways that airports have diversified activities and highlights the challenges that arise when non-aeronautical activity is proposed on land that is subject to Federal Aviation Administration grants obligations and assurances.

11-03/Topic S01-03 Airport Insurance Coverage and Risk Management Practices

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 30: Airport Insurance Coverage and Risk Management Practices identifies both the variables that affect insurance purchasing for airport operators and the range of risk management practices that exist among U.S. airports. The report is designed to help airport officials confronted with risk-financing and insurance-purchasing decisions.

11-03/Topic S01-04 Airline and Airport-Airline Consortiums to Manage Terminals and Equipment
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 31: Airline and Airline–Airport Consortiums to Manage Terminals and Equipment discusses the current state of Airline-Airport consortiums in the United States.

Issued addressed in the report include scope of responsibilities, consortium formation, membership, contractual agreements and insurance, organizational structures, performance standards, financial models, and organizing tips and lessons learned from existing consortiums.

11-03/Topic S01-05 Airport Organization

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 40: Issues with Airport Organization and Reorganization examines organizational design, and current trends and practices in airport management.

11-03/Topic S01-06 How Airports Measure Customer Service Performance

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 48: How Airports Measure Customer Service Performance examines the strategic importance of customer service and how airports are measuring the quality of customer service.

11-03/Topic S01-07 Conducting Airport Peer Reviews

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 46: Conducting Airport Peer Reviews explores the range of peer review approaches being used by airport sponsors, identifies similar efforts outside the airport industry, and documents both effective practices and challenges in conducting peer review activities.

11-03/Topic S01-08 Understanding the Value of Social Media at Airports for Customer Engagement

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 56: Understanding the Value of Social Media at Airports for Customer Engagement compiles current literature and practice on how airport operators utilize social media to enhance customer engagement.

11-03/Topic S01-09 Practices to Develop Effective Stakeholder Relationships at Smaller Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 65: Practices to Develop Effective Stakeholder Relationships at Smaller Airports describes practices, tools, communication techniques, feedback loops, and case examples that highlight how leaders at smaller airports proactively manage stakeholder relationships.

11-03/Topic S01-10 Strategies for Maintaining Air Service
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 68: Strategies for Maintaining Air Service explores practices that smaller airports use to maintain air service.

11-03/Topic S01-11 Continuity of Operations Planning for Small Airports

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 78: Continuity of Operations Planning for Small Airports compiles information about current continuity planning practices at airports of different types and sizes and determine how they can be effectively applied to smaller airports to maintain resilient operational and business capacity during a disruption, regardless of cause.

Business continuity planning is the process of developing a plan for operating essential operational and business functions in the face of a disruption caused by any types of emergencies, incidents, or events. This study addresses business continuity planning for both emergency and non-emergency disruptions. This report is a companion to ACRP Report 93: Operational and Business Continuity Planning for Prolonged Airport Disruptions.

11-03/Topic S01-12 Airport Participation in Oil & Gas Development

11-03/Topic S01-13 Food and Beverage and Retail Operators: The Costs of Doing Business at Airports
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 81: Food and Beverage and Retail Operators: The Costs of Doing Business at Airports explores ways to comprehend the complex airport terminal operating environment in order to understand and forecast operating costs and to judge the potential for success and profitability. The synthesis compiles practices of airports to improve the communication of cost data to better evaluate and make decisions based on the total cost of doing business at airports.

11-03/Topic S01-14 Funding Industrial Aviation

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 79: Funding Industrial Aviation explores how airports fund the infrastructure to support industrial aviation development. For this report, industrial aviation development includes but is not limited to:


Aircraft maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO)
Specialized aviation services such as paint and interior completion (single service operators, SSOs)
Aircraft manufacturing and assembly
Aircraft fabrication and development
Aviation warehousing
Cold ports
Spaceports
Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) platform development

Separate from the publication, Appendix B: Survey Results, is available as a PDF document.

11-03/Topic S01-15 Airport Operator Options for Delivery of FBO Services
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 86: Airport Operator Options for Delivery of FBO Services explores the local considerations that go into deciding how fixed base operator (FBO) airports provide fueling, flight continuation services, maintenance, and concierge services. This synthesis also explores the tools that airports use to evaluate which options work best for airports. Broadly speaking, an airport sponsor can deliver FBO services with traditional third-party leases or by engaging a contract manager,or the airport can self-operate the FBO. Decisions about which model is appropriate hinge on an evaluation of an airport’s unique local economic conditions, the details about the area’s general aviation market, and the level of interest private FBOs express about operating at a particular airport.

11-03/Topic S01-16 Microgrids and their Application for Airports and Public Transit
A microgrid is an independent electrical system established in isolation from the wider electrical grid to provide enhanced control and protection to prevent negative effects of grid failure caused by events such as natural disasters and human intervention. This synthesis report seeks to examine and highlight the application of microgrids in airport settings in order to benefit overall airport operations and security.

11-03/Topic S01-17 Attracting Investment at General Aviation Airports Through Public-Private Partnerships
Many successful general aviation airports host a mix of aeronautical and non-aeronautical uses through public private partnerships. Each has a complex mix of lease terms to allow for developer return on investment while protecting avigation and comlying with FAA requirements. This research focuses on practical business applications to make a small airport developments successful.

11-03/Topic S01-18 Value, Benefits, and Limitations of Qualifications Based Selection (QBS) for Airport Project Delivery
The objective of this synthesis of airport practice is a snapshot of how airports may apply the use of QBS in various project delivery scenarios, and describes the benefits and limitations of QBS for specific project delivery methods. The audience for this report is airport project management staff responsible for project delivery. Compiling this information provides airport staff with additional resources to assist in decision making when undergoing the selection process for project delivery options, resulting in cost effective, efficient and high-quality projects.

11-03/Topic S01-19 Data Acquisition and Protocols for Risk Management
Research is needed to provide a state-of-the-art survey of the existing tools for characterizing common hazards found on airports and the risk management protocols in use for identifying and carrying out decisions to minimize adverse consequences, and safety management systems (SMS) applicability.

11-03/Topic S01-20 Compilation of Data on the State of FBOs
This synthesis would result in a written benchmark of FBOs for 2017 in concise format and development of an accompanying database that could be updated periodically by others to track changes in the industry. The synthesis would involve:

• Selection of credible FBO data to acquire
• Acquisition of the data
• Design of the database and reporting capabilities
• Initial analysis and report on FBO locations, ownership patterns, and services provided

11-03/Topic S02-01 Effects of Aircraft Noise

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 9: Effects of Aircraft Noise: Research Update on Select Topics includes an annotated bibliography and summary of new research on the effects of aircraft noise. The report is designed to update and complement the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration’s 1985 Aviation Noise Effects report.

11-03/Topic S02-02 Sustainable Facilities and Practices

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 10: Airport Sustainability Practices explores airport sustainability practices across environmental, economic, and social issues.

11-03/Topic S02-03 A Compilation of Airport Noise Programs in Areas Outside DNL 65

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 16: Compilation of Noise Programs in Areas Outside DNL 65 explores alternative actions currently used by airports to address noise outside the DNL (Day–Night Average Noise Level) 65 contour. 

11-03/Topic S02-04 Approaches to Integrating Airport Development and Federal Environmental Review Processes

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 17: Approaches to Integrating Airport Development and Federal Environmental Review Processes explores practices that airport sponsors and U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) planners and environmental specialists have used to integrate airport planning efforts and the FAA’s environmental review processes. 

11-03/Topic S02-05 Strategies and Financing Opportunities for Airport Environmental Programs

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 24: Strategies and Financing Opportunities for Airport Environmental Programs summarizes public and private funding opportunities and strategies available to airports to help accomplish their environmental programs and objectives.

11-03/Topic S02-06 Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 33: Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience reviews the range of risks to airports from projected climate change and the emerging approaches for handling them.

11-03/Topic S02-07 Integrating Environmental Sustainability into Airport Contracts

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 42: Integrating Environmental Sustainability into Airport Contracts provides examples of how airports might help drive environmental sustainability performance improvements at their facilities by integrating environmental sustainability concepts into contracts with contractors, suppliers, and vendors.

11-03/Topic S02-08 Environmental Assessment of Air and High Speed Rail Corridors
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 43: Environmental Assessment of Air and High-Speed Rail Corridors explores where additional research can improve the ability to assess the environmental outcomes of these two systems.

11-03/Topic S02-09 Airport Environmental Management System Development Processes

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 44: Environmental Management System Development Process provides background on the framework of an environmental management system (EMS), explores similarities and differences of the various approaches to an EMS, explains the EMS development process, and highlights lessons learned by airports that have developed an EMS.

11-03/Topic S02-10 Outcomes of Green Initiatives: Large Airports Experience

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 53: Outcomes of Green Initiatives: Large Airport Experience explores the drivers and outcomes of green initiatives at airports and identifies data that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of various initiatives.

Airports are embracing green initiatives to address compliance issues, reduce their environmental footprint, and help achieve the airports’ long-term prosperity and success.

11-03/Topic S02-11 Lessons Learned from Airport Sustainability Plans

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 66: Lessons Learned from Airport Sustainability Plans explores sustainability initiatives at smaller U.S. airports. The synthesis presents an analysis of survey responses and provides information gained from the telephone interviews to help inform airport leadership and employees who are considering, developing, or implementing sustainability plans.

11-03/Topic S02-12 Airport Sustainability Practices-Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 69: Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports explores drivers and outcomes of green initiatives undertaken at small commercial and general aviation airports. Drivers could include financial viability, staffing considerations, or other social or environmental factors.

11-03/Topic S02-13 Helicopter Noise Information for Airports and Communities

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 76: Helicopter Noise Information for Airports and Communities examines the results of a literature review and survey of ten airports to summarize the impact of outreach, helicopter noise management programs, technology, and abatement procedures in managing helicopter noise. The report is geared to assist both airports and communities with addressing helicopter noise and a description of the current state of effective practices for noise management.

11-03/Topic S02-14 Airport Sustainability Practices
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 77: Airport Sustainability Practices compiles information about airport sustainability practices and adds them to the Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance (SAGA) website. The SAGA website was developed to assist airport operators in developing sustainability programs and provide guidance to those who have new data to input. The website contains entries on more than 900 sustainability practices that were developed by SAGA’s initial stakeholder group. However, a large percentage of these entries do not contain actual practice data. .

11-03/Topic S02-15 Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 85: Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets is designed to assist airport operators in analyzing complex procurement, operational, and environmental decisions when considering alternative fuels in airport fleets.

Airports own and contract fleets to transport passengers, staff, and goods by on- and off-road vehicles. Although most transportation fuels are consumed by aircraft, using alternative fuels in airport fleets is one opportunity airports have to control emissions and fuel costs and potentially reduce maintenance.

The report compiles information on eight alternative fuels, including biodiesel, renewable diesel, compressed natural gas, renewable natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and electricity.

Ethanol and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are not included in this report because the driving experience and refueling operations associated with ethanol and HEVs are well understood and documented elsewhere.

11-03/Topic S02-16 Airport Community, Water Quality Events, and the Aircraft Drinking Water Rule
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 88: Airport Community, Water Quality Events, and the Aircraft Drinking Water Rule explores how airports, airlines, ground service providers, and ice and food caterers as well as other food service establishments can take measures to ensure that their operations have safe drinking water. Receiving prompt and accurate information about a drinking water quality event allows airport management and tenants to address and mitigate potential adverse effects. Airlines have reported that it is often difficult for them to obtain information about a drinking water quality event and determine if it affects an airport they serve. This report will provide airport management with the ability to distribute essential information and minimize the time it takes for notification of an event to reach the airport’s tenants.

11-03/Topic S02-17 Sustainability’s Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity
The objective of this research is to synthesize (1) effective practices for integrating sustainability programs into capacity enhancement or major capital improvements projects at airports; and (2) describe effective communications of these programs to communities in order to describe whether and how the integration of sustainability concepts in projects affects the community’s perception of major projects, and ultimate acceptance of project execution.

11-03/Topic S02-18 Airport Waste Management and Recycling Practices
Recycling, composting, food donation, reuse, and waste reduction are important aspects of ongoing waste management activities at airports to reduce landfill disposal, associated costs, and environmental impacts.

11-03/Topic S02-19 Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers
Over the past 10 years, numerous airports have adopted various alternative fuels to reduce emissions. Capturing recent experience of airport provate ground transportation operators would provide valuable insights to other airports considering the expansion of alternative fuel use. This report serves as a companion to a similar project underway to compile practies for airport owned and contracted fleets using alternative fuels.

11-03/Topic S02-20 Lessons Learned from Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts
This study will synthesize results from projects at a range of airports pertaining to the implementation of GHG reduction initiatives, and would significantly benefit airports considering projects in the future. The audience for the report is airport staff members responsible for planning and implementing GHG reduction programs.

11-03/Topic S03-01 Airport Aviation Activity Forecasting

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 2: Airport Aviation Activity Forecasting examines how airport forecasts are used and identifies common aviation metrics, aviation data sources, issues in data collection and preparation, and special data issues at nontowered airports.  The report also explores available forecasting methods, including the primary statistical methods; market share analysis; econometric modeling; and time series modeling.  In addition the report reviews forecast uncertainty, accuracy, issues of optimism bias, and options for resolving differences when multiple forecast are available.

11-03/Topic S03-02 Airport Access Mode Choice Models

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Highway Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 5: Airport ground Access Mode Choice Models examines the characteristics of existing ground access mode choice models and explores the issues involved in the development and use of such models to improve the understanding and acceptance of their role in airport planning and management. 

11-03/Topic S03-03 Airport Economic Impact Methods and Models

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 7: Airport Economic Impact Methods and Models explores how airport economic impact studies are currently conducted.  The report examines the methods and models used to define and identify, evaluate and measure, and communicate the different facets of the economic impact of airports.  The report also highlights the various analysis methods, models, and tools that are available for local airport economic studies, as well as their applicability and tradeoffs, including limitations, trends, and recent developments.

11-03/Topic S03-04 Airport System Planning Practices

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 14: Airport System Planning Practices explores the extent to which state aviation agencies and regional planning organizations are involved in airport system planning. The report also examines the type of studies these organizations perform and how successful their efforts have been in meeting the planning process objectives.

11-03/Topic S03-05 Effective Practices for Preparting Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Benefit-Cost Analysis

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 13: Effective Practices for Preparing Airport Improvement Program Benefit-Cost Analysis explores assessment techniques that can be used by airports in performing benefit-cost analysis for hard-to-quantify benefits from projects needing more than $5 million in Airport Improvement Program discretionary funding.

11-03/Topic S03-07 Integrating Airport GIS Data with Public Agency GIS

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 59: Integrating Airport Geographic Information System (GIS) Data with Public Agency GIS identifies effective and emerging data exchange practices that airports and public agencies can use to increase the data they have access to, while reducing the cost of identifying, collecting, and maintaining these data. It synthesizes the need expressed by airports and public agencies to exchange geographic information and related resources, highlighting effective practices and industry trends.


11-03/Topic S03-08 Backcountry Airstrip Preservation

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 55: Backcountry Airstrip Preservation catalogues the uses, benefits, and threats to backcountry airstrips and identifies practices and strategies to manage these threats.

11-03/Topic S03-09 Cell Phone Lots at Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 62: Cell Phone Lots at Airports reviews the information about airport cell phone lots to help airports determine if benefits of the lot outweigh any operating and maintenance costs and foregone revenues. A cell phone lot is typically a free parking lot at an airport that allows temporary parking until a traveler is available for pickup.

11-03/Topic S03-10 Practices in Preserving and Developing Public-Use Seaplane Bases

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 61: Practices in Preserving and Developing Public-Use Seaplane Bases reviews current practices in developing and preserving public-use seaplane bases throughout the United States. The report reviews and presents information on the planning process, design considerations, permits, regulatory requirements, and facility and service needs of seaplane bases.

11-03/Topic S03-11 Transportation Network Companies: Challenges and Opportunities for Airport Operators
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 84: Transportation Network Companies: Challenges and Opportunities for Airport Operators compiles experiences and effective practices by airports in facilitating customer access to Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) like Uber and Lyft. This synthesis also summarizes the amount of revenue airports receive from TNCs and how TNCs are affecting airport operations and other businesses. As of December 2016, TNCs are permitted to operate at more than 90 U.S. airports.

11-03/Topic S03-12 Preparing Airports for Communicable Diseases on Arriving Flights
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 83: Preparing Airports for Communicable Diseases on Arriving Flights examines current disease preparedness and response practices at U.S. and Canadian airports in coordination with public health officers and partners. While larger airports that receive international flights are most likely to experience the challenges associated with these events, the preparedness and response lessons are transferable to the aviation sector more widely. Smaller airports may be final destinations of those traveling with communicable diseases, so report findings are useful to all airport operators and local public health officers.

11-03/Topic S03-13 Estimating Truck Trip Generation for Airport Air Cargo Activity
 
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 80: Estimating Truck Trip Generation for Airport Air Cargo Activity compiles existing information about air cargo truck trip generation studies. The existing literature and research regarding air cargo facility-related truck trip generation rates is limited in its scope and detail. In addition, the complexity of the modern air cargo industry makes it difficult to obtain the data necessary to develop truck trip generation rates. Access to such information could conceivably help a community plan and invest appropriately by accounting for air cargo’s impacts. Similarly, air cargo operators and airport officials could employ such data to help ensure cargo facility truck access and egress remains reliable and safe.

11-03/Topic S03-14 Simulation Options for Airport Planning
This synthesis describes airport airside and landside simulation tools used for airport planning and environmental analysis. The research will compile how simulation tools are used at various airports and what benefit they provide. The survey also addresses potential capability-gaps in existing air-side and ground-side simulation tools, and provides a concise comparison of the capabilities of each category of tool, how they are integrated to achieve analyses goals, and further research needs to fulfill capability gaps.

11-03/Topic S03-15 How Airports Plan for Changing Aircraft Capacity-the Effects of Upgauging
Airlines are implementing a technique known as ¡§upgauging,¡¨ in which airlines increase capacity by replacing smaller planes with larger ones. The result of upgauging has required airports of all sizes to adjust. This research will describe issues that airports need to attend to and accommodations made in maintaining flexibility to accommodate aircraft and passenger changes from airline upgauging.

11-03/Topic S04-01 General Aviation Safety and Security Practices

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 3: General Aviation Safety and Security Practices examines resources used by the general aviation community in the development of safety and security programs, explores funding sources and issues that determine the amount of money spent on such programs, and describes current practices that general aviation airports use to keep their facilities safe and secure.

11-03/Topic S04-02 Preventing Vehicle-Aircraft Incidents During Winter Operations and Periods of Low Visibility
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 12: Preventing Vehicle–Aircraft Incidents During Winter Operations and Periods of Low Visibility examines factors affecting safe winter operations and the prevention of runway incursions by airport snow removal equipment operators. 
 

11-03/Topic S04-03 Identification of the Requirements and Training to Obtain Driving Privileges on Airfields

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 15: Identification of the Requirements and Training to Obtain Driving Privileges on Airfields explores information on the requirements and training required to obtain driving privileges on airport airfields, and the differences and similarities among the various airports throughout the country. The report also examines information on the types of training programs available to airport employees based on where the employees were authorized to drive.

11-03/Topic S04-05 Bird Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques on Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 23: Bird Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques for Use on and Near Airports reviews techniques for reducing bird collisions with aircraft and the relative effectiveness of the various techniques.

11-03/Topic S04-06 Current Airport Inspection Practices Regarding FOD/Wildlife Hazards

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 26: Current Airport Inspection Practices Regarding FOD (Foreign Object Debris/Damage) details the components of a comprehensive FOD management program, and compiles current practices, techniques, and lists of tools available for use or those currently being used by airports for FOD inspections.

11-03/Topic S04-07 Lessons Learned from Airport Safety Management Systems Pilot Study

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 37: Lessons Learned from Airport Safety Management Systems Pilot Studies is designed to provide airport operators with data and experience from safety management system (SMS) pilot study airports. The report addresses SMS pilot study program management; SMS components design, development, and deployment; and SMS challenges and benefits.

In simple terms, SMS is a proactive business approach to managing and mitigating potential hazards within the organization to improve safety performance. SMS is comprised of four components (or pillars), including safety policy, safety risk management, safety assurance, and safety promotion.

11-03/Topic S04-08 Managing Aerial Firefighting Activities on Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 32: Managing Aerial Firefighting Activities on Airports highlights current airport and agency--primarily the U.S. Forest Service--practices, policies, and procedures at airports called upon to support aerial wildland firefighting suppression efforts.

11-03/Topic S04-09 Model Mutual Aid Agreements for Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 45: Model Mutual Aid Agreements for Airports presents information on mutual aid agreements, addressing nearly every type of emergency that could affect airports and require outside resources. The report is designed to assist airport operators in creating and sustaining effective emergency management mutual aid partnerships by documenting the specifics of existing agreements.

11-03/Topic S04-10 Safety Reporting Systems at Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 58: Safety Reporting Systems at Airports describes safety reporting methods and systems for airports certificated under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 139 by assessing current practices, processes, and systems used to collect and analyze safety data and information.

11-03/Topic S04-11 Effective Cooperation among Airports and Local and Regional Emergency Management Agencies for Disaster Preparedness and Response

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 50: Effective Cooperation Among Airports and Local and Regional Emergency Management Agencies for Disaster Preparedness and Response focuses on how airports and their emergency management partners establish and sustain effective working relationships, and methods of identifying problems and rebuilding damaged relationships.

The report is designed to provide airports and their emergency response allies access to a full range of policies, programs, practices, and relationships for establishing and sustaining good working relationships.

11-03/Topic S04-12 Airport Emergency Post-event Recovery Practices

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 60: Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices explores approaches to improving the overall resiliency of airports through planning for the recovery phase of emergency response.

11-03/Topic S04-13 Combining Mixed Use Flight Operations Safely at Airports

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 74: Combining Mixed-Use Flight Operations Safely at Airports documents practices in safely accommodating mixed-use aeronautical activity at airports. Mixed-use aeronautical activity refers to the different categories of aircraft a public-use airport is intended to accommodate in compliance with FAA sponsor assurances. These categories include gliders, helicopters, ultralight vehicles, balloons, airships, blimps, skydiving, aerial applications for agriculture and firefighting, banner towing, aerobatic practice, and similar flight operations. Also discussed are unmanned aircraft systems and radio-controlled model aircraft activity that take place on an airport and can become part of the mix of an airport’s operation. Not discussed are seaplane operations; ACRP Synthesis 61: Practices in Preserving and Developing Public-Use Seaplane Bases covers this topic.

11-03/Topic S04-14 Airport Safety Risk Management Panel Activities and Outcomes

11-03/Topic S04-15 Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 75: Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports documents the manner in which non-towered airports provide advisories to pilots regarding winds, traffic, and runways in use. Unlike with pilot advisories, there is little guidance available for airport operators in providing airport advisories. The objective of this report is to aggregate available guidance on this topic and document information from non-towered airports with at least 50,000 annual aircraft operations. The report includes a literature review and a telephone interview survey of 165 non-towered airports. Six case examples are included, documenting effective airport advisory programs in place at airports.

11-03/Topic S04-16 Emergency Communication Planning for Airports

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 73: Emergency Communications Planning for Airports explores emergency communications planning and is specifically designed for use by airport senior management, public information officers, and first responders and emergency managers. The report includes sample communication plan tables of contents, field operations guides, and a checklist of effective communications plans.

11-03/Topic S04-17 Tabletop and Full-Scale Emergency Exercises for General Aviation, Non-Hub, and Small Hub Airports

ACRP Synthesis 72: Tabletop and Full-Scale Emergency Exercises for General Aviation, Non-Hub, and Small Hub Airports provides small airports with the tools and practices needed to practice emergency response. The report provides sample exercise tools and plans, a checklist of effective practices for tabletop and full-scale emergency exercises, and a road map for developing an effective exercise program.

11-03/Topic S04-18 Uses of Social Media to Inform Operational Response and Recovery During an Airport Emergency

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 82: Uses of Social Media to Inform Operational Response and Recovery During an Airport Emergency summarizes airport practices and tools used by airport emergency managers. Using social media for emergency management, airports glean information and intelligence from the stream of posts and messages passing through social media and then apply this information to enhance situational awareness and resource allocation decisions by emergency managers. Such uses raise the stakes for timeliness of data extraction and validation of the results, especially if the information is going to be used for resource allocation and other decision making.

11-03/Topic S04-19 Incorporating ADA and Functional Needs in Emergency Exercises
There is no aspect of airport emergency management that does not need to include permanently and temporarily disabled persons, their service animals, and their specialized equipment and supplies. This effort will compile innovative methods that airports use to include ADA advocates and representatives in the planning, execution, and evaluation of emergency training and exercises.

11-03/Topic S04-20 Airport Incident Reporting Practices
Airport workplace injuries do occur but there does not seem to be a standardized process to classify and compare metrics across the airport industry sector with the goal of increasing safety for airport workers. This research looks to compile experience on how airports collect, report, analyze and act on OSHA reportable injury information.

11-03/Topic S04-21 Models for Law Enforcement at Airports
Airports of all types and sizes use a wide range of policing options: airport police, sheriff's substation, city police, county police, state police, contracted police services, and others. What are the advantages, benefits, issues, and costs of each option and how can an airport choose the most effective arrangement for its situation. Research is needed to collect data on practices used by airports to meet public safety needs and federal security requirements.

11-03/Topic S04-22 Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports
The purpose of this synthesis is to identify the different types of surface observing systems available to airports and the different types of operations that each type of sensor can support.

11-03/Topic S04-23 Airport Emergency Working Groups
This objective of this research is to locate and compile information on emergency working groups that are airline lead or include substantial airline participation that maintain mutual aid in assisting passenger during aviation emergencies at airports.

11-03/Topic S06-01 Synthesis of Aviation Workforce Development Practices
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 18: Aviation Workforce Development Practices explores airport operating entity jobs and related skill sets needed to perform those jobs. The report also identifies potential ways to gain training on the skill sets needed to fulfill airport-related jobs and notes gaps where skill sets, and educational and advancement opportunities, may exist.

11-03/Topic S06-02 Airport Self-Inspection Procedures and Training Practices

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 27: Airport Self-Inspection Practices provides insight into common airport self-inspection practices.

For the purposes of ACRP Synthesis 27, a comprehensive self-inspection program includes the components of training; inspecting; reporting discrepancies and findings; follow-up, resolution, and close-out; and quality control.

The report may be useful to airports in benchmarking their self-inspection programs to peer airports and practices considered successful by regional U.S. Federal Aviation Administration personnel.

11-03/Topic S06-03 Exploring Airport Employee Commuting and Parking Strategies

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 36: Exploring Airport Employee Commute and Parking Strategies analyzes what is known about airport employee commute patterns and commute modes.

The report addresses alternatives to the drive alone commute for airport employees, the effectiveness and challenges of airport employee commute options programs, and commute options programs offered by non-airport employers that might be applicable to the airport environment.

11-03/Topic S06-04 Helping New Maintenance Hires Adapt to the Airport Operating Environment

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 49: Helping New Maintenance Hires Adapt to the Airport Operating Environment highlights comprehensive safety and security training resources as well as successful practices for new maintenance hires at general aviation airports.

11-03/Topic S06-05 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges
Research is needed to collect examples of such programs and explore the many opportunities that airports have to contribute to the next generation of aviation professionals.

11-03/Topic S07-01 Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 51: Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports describes the challenges of wayfinding, fatigue, technology and equipment, and needed amenities, as well as the practices that airports are enacting to accommodate and improve the airport experience of aging travelers. The report is designed to help users better understand the aging demographic, and define issues and implement effective practices to accommodate aging travelers at airports.

11-03/Topic S07-02 Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility
This synthesis will document the current state of the practice and provide an overview of resources available to help airports of all sizes address the challenges of improving accessibility and mobility cost effectively when renovating airport terminals.

11-03/Topic S08-01 Airport Terminal Facility Activation Techniques

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 20: Airport Terminal Facility Activation Techniques explores lessons learned during terminal activations at 13 domestic and international airport facilities. The report is designed to help identify effective airport terminal facility activation practices.

11-03/Topic S09-01 Rubber Removal Techniques to Minimize Damage on Grooved Runways
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 11: Impact of Airport Rubber Removal Techniques on Runways explores the impacts of four common rubber removal methods on runways--waterblasting, chemical removal, shotblasting, and mechanical means (including sand blasting, scraping, brooming, milling, and grinding).
 
The report synthesizes the current information available in runway rubber removal, including the effects each removal method has on runway grooving, pavement surface, and to appurtenances normally found on an airport runway. Some regard this field as more of an art than a science. Thus, this report seeks to find those factors that can be controlled by the engineer when developing a runway rubber removal program. The synthesis identifies different approaches, models, and commonly used practices, recognizing the differences in each of the different rubber removal methods.  

11-03/Topic S09-02 Common Airport Pavement Maintenance Practices

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 22: Common Airport Pavement Maintenance Practices explores how airports implement a pavement maintenance management program, including inspecting and tracking pavement condition, scheduling maintenance, identifying necessary funds, and treating distresses in asphalt and concrete pavements.

11-03/Topic S09-03 Subsurface Utility Engineering Information Management for Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 34: Subsurface Utility Engineering Information for Airports examines ways in which information on subsurface utilities is collected, maintained, and used by airports, their consultants, and the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to help increase the effectiveness of, and enhance safety during, infrastructure development programs at airports.

The report also compares the current state of technology and effective processes from other industry sectors with what airports do today.

11-03/Topic S09-04 Issues with Use of Airfield LED Light Fixtures

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 35: Issues With Use of Airfield LED Light Fixtures documents the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) airfield lighting systems.

11-03/Topic S09-05 Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structure While in Use

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 47: Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structures While in Use provides information on developing and implementing successful maintenance and repair strategies for in-use airport parking structures that involve the least impact on the airport patrons, revenue stream, and facility operations.

11-03/Topic S09-06 Airside Snow Removal Practices for Small Airports with Limited Budgets

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 67: Airside Snow Removal Practices for Small Airports with Limited Budgets covers challenges and successful strategies that airport operators use at small airports with significant budget and other constraints to coordinate and conduct snow removal operations.

11-03/Topic S09-07 Building Information Modeling for Airports

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 70: Building Information Modeling for Airports summarizes current state of the art and practice for Building Information Modeling (BIM). BIM is a digital representation of a facility’s physical and functional characteristics. BIM offers tools that allow airport decision makers to understand all components of a facility—their location, and their attributes, both graphically and systematically—to minimize the total cost of owning and operating an airport facility.

The report provides a snapshot of experiences related to the emergence of BIM in North American airports. In addition to the report, a
PowerPoint presentation details use-cases of BIM at airports.

11-03/Topic S09-08 Practices to Mitigate Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) Effected Pavement at Airports
Concrete mix requirements for new airfield construction are specified in Item P-501 of AC 150/5370-10F (FAA 2011). ASR is avoided through stringent aggregate testing (mortar bar method), limiting the alkalis in the cement, and using Class F fly ash additive. However, many older airfields constructed prior the AC 150/5370-10F requirements are experiencing large slab expansion resulting in cracking due to ASR. Review of current approaches used for mitigating ASR effects at airfield pavement sections along with new approaches for ASR mitigation for new pavement construction would be useful to airport operations and pavement managers in mitigating an prolonging useful life of concrete airfield pavements.

11-03/Topic S10-01 Counting Aircraft Operations at Non-Towered Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 4: Counting Aircraft Operations at Non-Towered Airports explores the different methods used by states, airports, and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) of counting and estimating aircraft operations at non-towered airports.  The report also examines new technologies that can be used for these counts and estimates.

11-03/Topic S10-02 Common-Use Facilities and Equipment at Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 8: Common Use Facilities and Equipment at Airports explores common use technology that enables an airport operator to take space that has previously been exclusive to a single airline and make it available for use by multiple airlines and their passengers.  

11-03/Topic S10-03 Airport Pavement Deicing Products, Use and Corrosion Damage

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 6: Impact of Airport Pavement Deicing Products on Aircraft and Airfield Infrastructure explores how airports chemically treat their airport pavements to mitigate snow and ice, and the chemicals used.  The report also examines the effects of pavement deicing products on aircraft and airfield infrastructure, and highlights knowledge gaps in the subject. 

11-03/Topic S10-04 Airport Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 21: Airport Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction explores energy efficiency improvements being implemented at airports across the country that are low cost and short payback.

11-03/Topic S10-05 Ramp Safety Practices

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 29: Ramp Safety Practices addresses the current state of ground handling practices, focusing on safety measures and training.

Issues addressed in the report include ramp safety operations, staff roles and responsibilities, safety training, audit and inspection programs, safety violation programs, and collaborative safety initiatives, such as foreign object debris programs.

11-03/Topic S10-06 Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 28: Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation explores physical, visual, and communications systems interference impacts from energy technologies on airports and aviation safety.

The energy technologies that are the focus of this report include the following:
• solar photovoltaic panels and farms,
• concentrating solar power plants,
• wind turbine generators and farms, and 
• traditional power plants.

11-03/Topic S10-07 Expediting Aircraft Recovery at Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 38: Expediting Aircraft Recovery at Airports includes suggested procedures to help airports expedite the recovery of disabled aircraft that are designed to avoid injury to personnel, damage to airport equipment, and secondary damage to the aircraft.

For the purposes of the report, a disable aircraft is defined as on that is unable to move using its power after an excursion from a runway or taxiway.

11-03/Topic S10-08 Conducting Aeronautical Special Events at Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 41: Conducting Aeronautical Special Events at Airports consolidates available information and lessons learned on how to successfully plan, organize, and conduct an aeronautical special event and restore normal operations after the event.

For the purposes of this report, aeronautical special events are defined as those events that involve aviation activities or aircraft.

11-03/Topic S10-09 Airport Wildlife Population Management

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 39: Airport Wildlife Population Management provides direct wildlife population control techniques for reducing wildlife collisions with aircraft. In addition, the report summarizes the ecological foundation of wildlife population control and management.

ACRP Synthesis 39 is designed to supplement
ACRP Synthesis 23: Bird Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques for Use on and Near Airports. ACRP Synthesis 23 provides a synthesis of nonlethal wildlife control measures focusing on birds. The combined information from the two syntheses is designed to help airports develop an effective, integrated wildlife population control strategy and program.

11-03/Topic S10-10 Habitat Management to Deter Wildlife at Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 52: Habitat Management to Deter Wildlife at Airports presents information on habitat management to deter wildlife at airports and manage risk to aviation. It is the third of three related syntheses of airport practice reports and completes the series wildlife risk management at airports.

ACPR Synthesis builds on previous ACRP documents, including
ACRP Synthesis 23, ACRP Report 32, and ACRP Synthesis 39, which address bird deterrence and harassment techniques, various wildlife hazards and control techniques, and population management methods, respectively.


11-03/Topic S10-11 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at Airports Parking Facilities

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 54: Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at Airport Parking Facilities is designed as a primer on electric vehicle (EV) charging and includes information on policy approaches, infrastructure needs, and funding mechanisms that airports have used in EV hosting.

The report summarizes the state of the EV industry, highlights the motivations for airport sponsors to provide EV charging stations, identifies current EV charging technologies, and describes practices for installing EV charging stations at airports in terms of finances, planning, implementation, and operation of the charging stations.

11-03/Topic S10-12 Airport Response to Special Events

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 57: Airport Response to Special Events explores how airports plan, manage, and recover from special events in order to help minimize the event’s effects on an airport’s regular operations.

The synthesis explores issues related to planning, organizing, and applying lessons learned, as well as addressing potential surprises and impacts on operations and customer services related to a variety of non-aeronautical events that occur both on and off an airport. ACRP Synthesis 57 offers six case examples designed to help demonstrate how airports of all sizes plan, manage, and recover from special events.

ACRP Synthesis 57 can serve as a companion document to
ACRP Synthesis 41: Conducting Aeronautical Special Events at Airports. ACRP Synthesis 41 focuses on aeronautical events such as air shows, airport open houses, aircraft static displays, and fly-ins.

11-03/Topic S10-13 Overview of Airport Fueling Operations

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 63: Overview of Airport Fueling Operations explores airport fueling system operations at all sizes of airports. The report describes fueling standards and regulations, common operations and components, and serves as a reference for a number of fueling processes and procedures. On-airport fueling systems and components are the main focus of the report.

11-03/Topic S10-14 Issues Related to Accommodating Animals Traveling through Airports

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 64: Issues Related to Accommodating Animals Traveling Through Airports explores ways for airports to develop a coordinated approach in animal transportation to better accommodate the well-being of animals traveling through airports. The report identifies pertinent regulations; explores issues and ranges of accommodation requirements and strategies to respond to issues; and illustrates effective airport practices to help accommodate animals traveling through airports.

11-03/Topic S10-15 Evaluating Airport Performance with the Integration of UAS
This Synthesis project will be the first step in identifying appropriate metrics for UAS operations. With this Synthesis project, literature will be reviewed and interviews will be conducted to identify existing metrics and their effectiveness related to UAS performance.

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