ACRP 11-03 [Active]
Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices
| Project Data
||Theresia H. Schatz
||Transportation Research Board|
||Gail R. Staba|
Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem.
There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, an ACRP synthesis program has been established similar to those currently in existence in both the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). These programs search out and synthesize useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor will constitute an ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice series.
The objective of this project is to provide a synthesis program for the ACRP. A synthesis is a relatively short document (40-60 pages) that summarizes existing practice in a specific topic area based typically on a literature search and a survey of relevant organizations (e.g., airports). Synthesis reports are most valuable when they are focused on issues or problems common to many organizations. The primary users of the reports are the practitioners who work on those issues or problems using diverse approaches in their individual settings. Note that syntheses merely summarize existing practice. They do not undertake new research, nor do they contain policy recommendations.
The following factors are considered in the selection process for synthesis topics:
- The problem should be widespread enough to generate broad interest in the synthesis.
- The problem should be timely and critical with respect to economic impact, safety, or social impact.
- The problem is appropriate if current practice is non-uniform or inconsistent from agency to agency, or if the validity of some practices appears to be questionable.
- The quality and quantity of useful available information should indicate a need to organize and compress that which has already been learned and written on the topic.
- The topic should not be one where ongoing research or other activities in progress might be expected to render the synthesis obsolete shortly after completion.
For each specific synthesis topic selected, TRB forms a topic panel of experts in the subject area to guide the researchers in organizing and evaluating data collected and to review the synthesis report. At its first meeting, each topic panel thoroughly discusses the topic, refines the tentative scope, suggests sources of information, and selects a consultant based on expression of interest received typically in response to an industry wide solicitation. Following this meeting, an agreement is negotiated with the selected consultant to gather information on the topic, synthesize it, and draft a report. For each synthesis topic, the objectives are (1) to locate and assemble documented information; (2) to learn what practice has been used for solving or alleviating problems; (3) to identify all ongoing research; (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; and (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the useful information that is acquired. Each synthesis will be an immediately useful document that records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation.
11-03/Topic S01-01 Innovative Finance and Alternative Sources of Revenue for Airports
11-03/Topic S01-02 Airport Economic Development Opportunities and Incentives
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 1: Innovative Finance and Alternative Sources of Revenue for Airports explores alternative financing options and revenue sources currently available or that could be available in the future to airport operators, stakeholders, and policymakers in the United States. The report examines common capital funding sources used by airport operators, a reviews capital financing mechanisms used by airports, describes various revenue sources developed by airport operators, and a reviews privatization options available to U.S. airport operators.
11-03/Topic S01-03 Airport Insurance Coverage and Risk Management Practices
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 19: Airport Revenue Diversification explores the different sources of revenue for airports, separating core aeronautical revenue from ancillary revenues. The report also examines ways that airports have diversified activities and highlights the challenges that arise when non-aeronautical activity is proposed on land that is subject to Federal Aviation Administration grants obligations and assurances.
11-03/Topic S01-04 Airline and Airport-Airline Consortiums to Manage Terminals and Equipment
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 30: Airport Insurance Coverage and Risk Management Practices identifies both the variables that affect insurance purchasing for airport operators and the range of risk management practices that exist among U.S. airports. The report is designed to help airport officials confronted with risk-financing and insurance-purchasing decisions.
11-03/Topic S01-05 Airport Organization
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 31: Airline and Airline–Airport Consortiums to Manage Terminals and Equipment discusses the current state of Airline-Airport consortiums in the United States. Issued addressed in the report include scope of responsibilities, consortium formation, membership, contractual agreements and insurance, organizational structures, performance standards, financial models, and organizing tips and lessons learned from existing consortiums.
11-03/Topic S01-06 How Airports Measure Customer Service Performance
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 40: Issues with Airport Organization and Reorganization examines organizational design, and current trends and practices in airport management.
11-03/Topic S01-07 Conducting Airport Peer Reviews
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 48: How Airports Measure Customer Service Performance examines the strategic importance of customer service and how airports are measuring the quality of customer service.
11-03/Topic S01-08 Understanding the Value of Social Media at Airports for Customer Engagement
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 46: Conducting Airport Peer Reviews explores the range of peer review approaches being used by airport sponsors, identifies similar efforts outside the airport industry, and documents both effective practices and challenges in conducting peer review activities.
11-03/Topic S01-09 Practices to Develop Effective Stakeholder Relationships at Smaller Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 56: Understanding the Value of Social Media at Airports for Customer Engagement compiles current literature and practice on how airport operators utilize social media to enhance customer engagement.
11-03/Topic S01-10 Strategies for Maintaining Air Service
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 65: Practices to Develop Effective Stakeholder Relationships at Smaller Airports describes practices, tools, communication techniques, feedback loops, and case examples that highlight how leaders at smaller airports proactively manage stakeholder relationships.
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 68: Strategies for Maintaining Air Service explores practices that smaller airports use to maintain air service.
11-03/Topic S01-11 Continuity of Operations Planning for Small Airports
11-03/Topic S01-12 Airport Participation in Oil & Gas Development
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 78: Continuity of Operations Planning for Small Airports compiles information about current continuity planning practices at airports of different types and sizes and determine how they can be effectively applied to smaller airports to maintain resilient operational and business capacity during a disruption, regardless of cause. Business continuity planning is the process of developing a plan for operating essential operational and business functions in the face of a disruption caused by any types of emergencies, incidents, or events. This study addresses business continuity planning for both emergency and non-emergency disruptions. This report is a companion to ACRP Report 93: Operational and Business Continuity Planning for Prolonged Airport Disruptions.
RB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 87: Airport Participation in Oil and Gas Development provides airports with practical considerations and responses involving oil and gas extraction. The report documents lessons learned as energy prices went from their highest levels (in the mid-2000s) to some of their lowest (in 2015 and 2016). It includes a compilation of federal, state, and local regulatory frameworks; available airport oil and gas leases; municipal permits and ordinances; and case examples from targeted interviews with eight airports. As the price of oil and gas has a long history of volatility, a view of the full price cycle has particular utility to airports.
11-03/Topic S01-13 Food and Beverage and Retail Operators: The Costs of Doing Business at Airports
11-03/Topic S01-14 Funding Industrial Aviation
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 81: Food and Beverage and Retail Operators: The Costs of Doing Business at Airports explores ways to comprehend the complex airport terminal operating environment in order to understand and forecast operating costs and to judge the potential for success and profitability. The synthesis compiles practices of airports to improve the communication of cost data to better evaluate and make decisions based on the total cost of doing business at airports.
11-03/Topic S01-15 Airport Operator Options for Delivery of FBO Services
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 79: Funding Industrial Aviation explores how airports fund the infrastructure to support industrial aviation development. Separate from the publication, Appendix B: Survey Results, is available as a PDF document.
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 86: Airport Operator Options for Delivery of FBO Services explores the local considerations that go into deciding how fixed base operator (FBO) airports provide fueling, flight continuation services, maintenance, and concierge services. This synthesis also explores the tools that airports use to evaluate which options work best for airports. Broadly speaking, an airport sponsor can deliver FBO services with traditional third-party leases or by engaging a contract manager,or the airport can self-operate the FBO. Decisions about which model is appropriate hinge on an evaluation of an airport’s unique local economic conditions, the details about the area’s general aviation market, and the level of interest private FBOs express about operating at a particular airport.
11-03/Topic S01-16 Microgrids and their Application for Airports and Public Transit
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) have released a joint report, ACRP Synthesis 91 / TCRP Synthesis 137: Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. The report describes microgrids that airports and public transit agencies can implement to increase resilience of their critical infrastructure. A microgrid is described as a collection of loads, on-site energy sources, local energy storage systems, and an overarching control system. Developments in control technologies have seen advanced microgrid controllers expand microgrid functionality to create new value streams and revenue opportunities, increasing microgrid viability to many more sectors. This synthesis describes the benefits, challenges, costs, revenue streams, and ownership structures relevant to airports and public transit entities.
11-03/Topic S01-17 Attracting Investment at General Aviation Airports Through Public-Private Partnerships
11-03/Topic S01-18 Value, Benefits, and Limitations of Qualifications Based Selection (QBS) for Airport Project Delivery
In an era of declining resources and increasingly scrutinized public expenditures, private-sector involvement is and will likely need to continue to play a larger role to fill an ongoing and increasing gap between the existing infrastructure and the infrastructure that is needed. Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 94: Attracting Investment at General Aviation Airports Through Public–Private Partnerships explore public–private partnerships (PPPs) at general aviation airports in the United States over the past five years. For the purpose of the synthesis, these PPPs are defined by the World Bank as long-term contracts between a private party and a government entity for providing a public asset or service, in which the private party bears significant risk and management responsibility, and remuneration is linked to performance.
11-03/Topic S01-19 Airport Risk Identification and Prioritization Practices
About $1.5 trillion will be spent globally on airport infrastructure by 2030, according to the International Air Transport Association. Most of that enormous amount of money will be spent on projects that must be constructed without disrupting airport operations.
Given the focus on schedule and on the cost of failing to complete the construction during the periods of planned outages, the need for a highly qualified construction contractor with a proven record of timely and quality production is key to the success of airport projects across the globe.
The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 102: Value, Benefits, and Limitations of Qualifications-Based Selection for Airport Project Delivery aims to benchmark the state of the practice with respect to the use of qualifications-based selection (QBS) to award construction projects.
Airports are using tools that help them identify risks within their environment. Most airports are providing a means to report risk. Smaller airports use low-cost options such as email, a 24/7 phone number, or a suggestion box. Larger airports have embraced safety management or enterprise risk management programs that include more expensive reporting and tracking systems. The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 106: Airport Risk Identification and Prioritization Practices provides information about the existing tools that airports use for identifying common hazards and the processes used for measuring, monitoring, and prioritizing the associated risks.
11-03/Topic S01-20 Compilation of Data on the State of FBOs
11-03/Topic S01-21 Successful Arts Programs at Airports
The fixed-base operator (FBO) industry provides aeronautical services to a wide spectrum of aircraft operators at airports. The term FBO is defined by the FAA as “a business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services . . .” The most basic FBO offers its customers self-service fueling, as well as a set of core services such as use of hangars, ground services, and, sometimes, aircraft maintenance.
The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 108: Characteristics of the FBO Industry 2018-2019 profiles the FBO industry as of December 2018. This analysis of data provides a quantitative snapshot of the FBO industry intended to serve as a reliable baseline of information for tracking FBO trends in the future.
11-03/Topic S01-22 Last Mile in General Aviation - Courtesy Vehicles and other forms of Ground Transportation
Every airport that aspires to high ratings must offer an engaging arts program because these are offered by all of the world’s most highly rated airports. It is also now generally accepted that airport arts programs yield many additional benefits for airports, passengers, and the communities in which airports are located. Airport arts programs have become an amenity that airport passengers now expect, and they serve to tether an airport to its local community.
The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 114: Visual Arts Programs at Airports is an initial compilation of practices that airport arts professionals use for understanding the operations, management, and benefits of temporary visual arts programs at their airports.
Providing connectivity to the local community or region served by a general aviation airport is essential for providing a complete service to airport users and capturing economic benefit whether large or small.
11-03/Topic S01-23 Airport Software Solutions and Services Sourcing
The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 111: Last Mile in General Aviation—Courtesy Vehicles and Other Forms of Ground Transportation compiles options, practices, and tools for airports to use to develop a sustainable last-mile strategy to connect users of general aviation airports to the communities that they serve.
11-03/Topic S01-24 Examples of Airports Providing Facility Space for Community Use
11-03/Topic S01-25 Airport Parking Pricing Strategies
The objective of this synthesis is to compile practices airports have instituted to procure software solutions.
11-03/Topic S01-26 The Landscape of the FBO Industry in 2022
The objective of this synthesis is to compile practices in airport pricing strategies of parking facilities at commercial service airports to better understand components that airport managers use in setting parking rates.
The objective of this research is to examine selected recent and current trends in the aviation industry and their impacts on FBO’s at NPIAS airports. The audience for this synthesis are airport operators, FBO’s, industry associations, and policy makers.
11-03/Topic S01-27 State of Airport Loyalty Programs
11-03/Topic S02-01 Effects of Aircraft Noise
OBJECTIVE & AUDIENCE
The objective of this research is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of airport loyalty programs, including development, monetization, and the value of program adoption to the airports. The audience for this research are airport managers and stakeholders with responsibilities to strengthen customer loyalty and engagement as well as increase revenue.
11-03/Topic S02-02 Sustainable Facilities and Practices
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 9: Effects of Aircraft Noise: Research Update on Select Topics includes an annotated bibliography and summary of new research on the effects of aircraft noise. The report is designed to update and complement the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration’s 1985 Aviation Noise Effects report.
11-03/Topic S02-03 A Compilation of Airport Noise Programs in Areas Outside DNL 65
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 10: Airport Sustainability Practices explores airport sustainability practices across environmental, economic, and social issues.
11-03/Topic S02-04 Approaches to Integrating Airport Development and Federal Environmental Review Processes
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 16: Compilation of Noise Programs in Areas Outside DNL 65 explores alternative actions currently used by airports to address noise outside the DNL (Day–Night Average Noise Level) 65 contour.
11-03/Topic S02-05 Strategies and Financing Opportunities for Airport Environmental Programs
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 17: Approaches to Integrating Airport Development and Federal Environmental Review Processes explores practices that airport sponsors and U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) planners and environmental specialists have used to integrate airport planning efforts and the FAA’s environmental review processes.
11-03/Topic S02-06 Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 24: Strategies and Financing Opportunities for Airport Environmental Programs summarizes public and private funding opportunities and strategies available to airports to help accomplish their environmental programs and objectives.
11-03/Topic S02-07 Integrating Environmental Sustainability into Airport Contracts
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 33: Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience reviews the range of risks to airports from projected climate change and the emerging approaches for handling them.
11-03/Topic S02-08 Environmental Assessment of Air and High Speed Rail Corridors
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 42: Integrating Environmental Sustainability into Airport Contracts provides examples of how airports might help drive environmental sustainability performance improvements at their facilities by integrating environmental sustainability concepts into contracts with contractors, suppliers, and vendors.
11-03/Topic S02-09 Airport Environmental Management System Development Processes
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 43: Environmental Assessment of Air and High-Speed Rail Corridors explores where additional research can improve the ability to assess the environmental outcomes of these two systems.
11-03/Topic S02-10 Outcomes of Green Initiatives: Large Airports Experience
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 44: Environmental Management System Development Process provides background on the framework of an environmental management system (EMS), explores similarities and differences of the various approaches to an EMS, explains the EMS development process, and highlights lessons learned by airports that have developed an EMS.
11-03/Topic S02-11 Lessons Learned from Airport Sustainability Plans
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 53: Outcomes of Green Initiatives: Large Airport Experience explores the drivers and outcomes of green initiatives at airports and identifies data that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of various initiatives.
11-03/Topic S02-12 Airport Sustainability Practices-Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 66: Lessons Learned from Airport Sustainability Plans explores sustainability initiatives at smaller U.S. airports. The synthesis presents an analysis of survey responses and provides information gained from the telephone interviews to help inform airport leadership and employees who are considering, developing, or implementing sustainability plans.
11-03/Topic S02-13 Helicopter Noise Information for Airports and Communities
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 69: Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports explores drivers and outcomes of green initiatives undertaken at small commercial and general aviation airports. Drivers could include financial viability, staffing considerations, or other social or environmental factors.
11-03/Topic S02-14 Airport Sustainability Practices
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 76: Helicopter Noise Information for Airports and Communities examines the results of a literature review and survey of ten airports to summarize the impact of outreach, helicopter noise management programs, technology, and abatement procedures in managing helicopter noise. The report is geared to assist both airports and communities with addressing helicopter noise and a description of the current state of effective practices for noise management.
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 77: Airport Sustainability Practices compiles information about airport sustainability practices and adds them to the Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance (SAGA) website. The SAGA website was developed to assist airport operators in developing sustainability programs and provide guidance to those who have new data to input. The website contains entries on more than 900 sustainability practices that were developed by SAGA’s initial stakeholder group. However, a large percentage of these entries do not contain actual practice data. .
11-03/Topic S02-15 Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets
11-03/Topic S02-16 Airport Community, Water Quality Events, and the Aircraft Drinking Water Rule
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 85: Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets is designed to assist airport operators in analyzing complex procurement, operational, and environmental decisions when considering alternative fuels in airport fleets. Although most transportation fuels are consumed by aircraft, using alternative fuels in airport fleets is one opportunity airports have to control emissions and fuel costs and potentially reduce maintenance. The report compiles information on eight alternative fuels, including biodiesel, renewable diesel, compressed natural gas, renewable natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and electricity. Ethanol and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are not included in this report because the driving experience and refueling operations associated with ethanol and HEVs are well understood and documented elsewhere.
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 88: Airport Community, Water Quality Events, and the Aircraft Drinking Water Rule explores how airports, airlines, ground service providers, and ice and food caterers as well as other food service establishments can take measures to ensure that their operations have safe drinking water. Receiving prompt and accurate information about a drinking water quality event allows airport management and tenants to address and mitigate potential adverse effects. Airlines have reported that it is often difficult for them to obtain information about a drinking water quality event and determine if it affects an airport they serve. This report will provide airport management with the ability to distribute essential information and minimize the time it takes for notification of an event to reach the airport’s tenants.
11-03/Topic S02-17 Sustainability’s Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) has released a pre-publication, non-edited version of Synthesis 93: Sustainability's Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity. This report compiles information and examples that successfully demonstrate the value of building sustainability concepts into capacity-enhancing projects and describes additional resources and tools that provide guidance on how to select, apply, and communicate sustainability measures. The report highlights that sustainability efforts often build on themselves; lessons learned from one initiative are carried through to the next, and this progressive learning process can enhance sustainability’s role in capacity-enhancing projects over time.
11-03/Topic S02-18 Airport Waste Management and Recycling Practices
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 92: Airport Waste Management and Recycling Practices focuses on airport waste management and recycling practices that reduce impacts and costs to airports and their surrounding communities. The information in this study was acquired through a literature review, survey results from 35 organizations representing 36 airports from a range of geographic locations and airport classifications, and interviews of a subset of 21 airport waste management experts. The results of the literature review and survey are presented in this short report. Supporting Materials, Case Examples, and Toolkits for ACRP Synthesis 92 includes survey results, case examples representing in-depth interviews on specific airport waste management and recycling practices, and toolkits of existing effective practices to assist airports in implementing their waste management and recycling programs.
11-03/Topic S02-19 Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers
11-03/Topic S02-20 Lessons Learned from Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 89: Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers documents effective approaches and reviews best practices employed by airports to encourage different types of private ground transportation providers to run more environmentally friendly operations. The report summarizes the experiences of public-use airports with developing and implementing clean vehicle policies involving private ground transportation operators serving the airports.
11-03/Topic S02-21 Practices in Airport Renewable Energy Projects
Airports in the United States are responding to the demand for increased air travel with sustainable development that incorporates more energy-efficient and lower-emission technologies. Funding for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions-reducing technologies, such as electrification, alternative fuels, and renewable energy, has also become more accessible as technologies are proven to be safe, reliable, and cost-effective.
Newer strategies and programs to reduce GHG emissions reach beyond airport operations to incorporate the traveling public. These are among the findings in the TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 100: Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts. The report assesses (1) the state of practice of GHG emissions reduction initiatives at airports, and (2) the lessons learned to support the successful implementation of future GHG reduction projects.
The report also finds that large airports are taking the lead in moving beyond reduction strategies for their own emissions and tackling those produced by tenants and the traveling public by supporting the use of alternative fuels and directing passengers to airport carbon offset platforms.
11-03/Topic S02-22 Airport Programs that Reduce Landside Vehicle Carbon Emissions
Airports have implemented a variety of renewable energy technologies since 1999—with the largest growth occurring over the past decade—in parallel with the evolution and maturation of renewable energy markets. Of the renewable energy options available to airports today, the prevailing technology is solar photovoltaic (PV), which accounts for 72% of all projects cataloged in the Renewable Energy Projects Inventory.
The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 110: Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples draws on existing literature and data to present the state of practice for airport renewable energy. It presents the integration of renewable energy projects—including solar PV, geothermal, bioenergy, solar thermal, and small wind projects—into airport development and operations and the drivers behind those efforts.
11-03/Topic S03-01 Airport Aviation Activity Forecasting
The objective of this research is to provide information on the use of airport programs or initiatives that reduce carbon emissions from vehicles accessing the airport. The audiences for this research are airport landside and ground transportation, finance and business development, planning and engineering, and environmental departments.
11-03/Topic S03-02 Airport Access Mode Choice Models
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 2: Airport Aviation Activity Forecasting examines how airport forecasts are used and identifies common aviation metrics, aviation data sources, issues in data collection and preparation, and special data issues at nontowered airports. The report also explores available forecasting methods, including the primary statistical methods; market share analysis; econometric modeling; and time series modeling. In addition the report reviews forecast uncertainty, accuracy, issues of optimism bias, and options for resolving differences when multiple forecast are available.
11-03/Topic S03-03 Airport Economic Impact Methods and Models
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Highway Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 5: Airport ground Access Mode Choice Models examines the characteristics of existing ground access mode choice models and explores the issues involved in the development and use of such models to improve the understanding and acceptance of their role in airport planning and management.
11-03/Topic S03-04 Airport System Planning Practices
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 7: Airport Economic Impact Methods and Models explores how airport economic impact studies are currently conducted. The report examines the methods and models used to define and identify, evaluate and measure, and communicate the different facets of the economic impact of airports. The report also highlights the various analysis methods, models, and tools that are available for local airport economic studies, as well as their applicability and tradeoffs, including limitations, trends, and recent developments.
11-03/Topic S03-05 Effective Practices for Preparting Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Benefit-Cost Analysis
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 14: Airport System Planning Practices explores the extent to which state aviation agencies and regional planning organizations are involved in airport system planning. The report also examines the type of studies these organizations perform and how successful their efforts have been in meeting the planning process objectives.
11-03/Topic S03-07 Integrating Airport GIS Data with Public Agency GIS
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 13: Effective Practices for Preparing Airport Improvement Program Benefit-Cost Analysis explores assessment techniques that can be used by airports in performing benefit-cost analysis for hard-to-quantify benefits from projects needing more than $5 million in Airport Improvement Program discretionary funding.
11-03/Topic S03-08 Backcountry Airstrip Preservation
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 59: Integrating Airport Geographic Information System (GIS) Data with Public Agency GIS identifies effective and emerging data exchange practices that airports and public agencies can use to increase the data they have access to, while reducing the cost of identifying, collecting, and maintaining these data. It synthesizes the need expressed by airports and public agencies to exchange geographic information and related resources, highlighting effective practices and industry trends.
11-03/Topic S03-09 Cell Phone Lots at Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 55: Backcountry Airstrip Preservation catalogues the uses, benefits, and threats to backcountry airstrips and identifies practices and strategies to manage these threats.
11-03/Topic S03-10 Practices in Preserving and Developing Public-Use Seaplane Bases
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 62: Cell Phone Lots at Airports reviews the information about airport cell phone lots to help airports determine if benefits of the lot outweigh any operating and maintenance costs and foregone revenues. A cell phone lot is typically a free parking lot at an airport that allows temporary parking until a traveler is available for pickup.
11-03/Topic S03-11 Transportation Network Companies: Challenges and Opportunities for Airport Operators
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 61: Practices in Preserving and Developing Public-Use Seaplane Bases reviews current practices in developing and preserving public-use seaplane bases throughout the United States. The report reviews and presents information on the planning process, design considerations, permits, regulatory requirements, and facility and service needs of seaplane bases.
11-03/Topic S03-12 Preparing Airports for Communicable Diseases on Arriving Flights
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 84: Transportation Network Companies: Challenges and Opportunities for Airport Operators compiles experiences and effective practices by airports in facilitating customer access to Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) like Uber and Lyft. This synthesis also summarizes the amount of revenue airports receive from TNCs and how TNCs are affecting airport operations and other businesses. As of December 2016, TNCs are permitted to operate at more than 90 U.S. airports.
11-03/Topic S03-13 Estimating Truck Trip Generation for Airport Air Cargo Activity
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 83: Preparing Airports for Communicable Diseases on Arriving Flights examines current disease preparedness and response practices at U.S. and Canadian airports in coordination with public health officers and partners. While larger airports that receive international flights are most likely to experience the challenges associated with these events, the preparedness and response lessons are transferable to the aviation sector more widely. Smaller airports may be final destinations of those traveling with communicable diseases, so report findings are useful to all airport operators and local public health officers.
11-03/Topic S03-14 Simulation Options for Airport Planning
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 80: Estimating Truck Trip Generation for Airport Air Cargo Activity compiles existing information about air cargo truck trip generation studies. The existing literature and research regarding air cargo facility-related truck trip generation rates is limited in its scope and detail. In addition, the complexity of the modern air cargo industry makes it difficult to obtain the data necessary to develop truck trip generation rates. Access to such information could conceivably help a community plan and invest appropriately by accounting for air cargo’s impacts. Similarly, air cargo operators and airport officials could employ such data to help ensure cargo facility truck access and egress remains reliable and safe.
Global business and tourism depend heavily on the efficient operation of airports and movement of passengers, baggage, and cargo across many areas. With increasing demand and connectivity requirements for airports comes the need for more sophisticated simulation and modeling tools to validate design assumptions. Furthermore, airport design and planning decisions have significant impacts on policy and major capital improvement decisions, which can be supported by simulation and modeling tools at many levels. ACRP Synthesis 98: Simulation Options for Airport Planning is the result of the collection and analysis of information on current industry practices and on applications of simulation tools for airport planning and design. Credible simulation projects can help airport administrators, designers, engineers, and planners estimate the impact of planned changes on passenger traffic, aircraft traffic, roadway traffic, baggage movements, and other subsystems such as bus and train links and aircraft ground support operations. The toolsets and processes used to analyze and simulate airport operations have changed significantly since the 1980s, when analysis techniques were limited to general purpose queuing and network analysis concepts or purpose-built simulation tools. These tools have become much more sophisticated and accurate in emulating real-world aircraft, passenger, and vehicle dynamics.
11-03/Topic S03-15 How Airports Plan for Changing Aircraft Capacity-the Effects of Upgauging
11-03/Topic S03-16 Project Prioritization and Selection Processes for State Aviation Funding
"Upgauging” is an airline industry technique enabling air carriers to increase capacity by adding seats to existing jets and replacing smaller planes with larger ones. While these practices are generally the result of airline network and system-wide strategies, their impacts are often experienced at the local level by the airport community. Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 97: How Airports Plan for Changing Aircraft Capacity: The Effects of Upgauging explores a broad concept of airline upgauging taking into account the principal drivers and techniques of upgauging, from both airline and airport perspectives. This study is based on information acquired through a literature review, survey results from 18 airports participating in the study that experienced major variations in passenger enplanements over the previous 5 to 10 years, and interviews with representatives of five airports and four state transportation agencies.
The objective of this synthesis is to document how state aviation agencies prioritize and select aviation projects with the funds available. This includes all state funding sources that contribute to aviation projects. The intended audience for this report is state aviation officials and airport sponsors.
11-03/Topic S03-17 Airport Centric Advanced Air Mobility Market Study
11-03/Topic S03-18 Communication, Implementation, and Outcomes of Airport Economic Impact Studies
The objective of this research is to summarize, compare, and contrast existing AAM market studies, and analyze and identify research gaps for information that airports need. The audience for this report are airports, transportation planners, state and local governments, policy makers, and other key stakeholders.
The objective of this research is to provide information on how airport economic impact studies have been communicated to stakeholders, how the studies has been implemented to achieve objectives, and what the resulting effects were to the agencies and airports included in the studies. The audience for this research are airports and agencies involved with producing and communicating airport economic impact studies
11-03/Topic S04-01 General Aviation Safety and Security Practices
11-03/Topic S04-02 Preventing Vehicle-Aircraft Incidents During Winter Operations and Periods of Low Visibility
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 3: General Aviation Safety and Security Practices examines resources used by the general aviation community in the development of safety and security programs, explores funding sources and issues that determine the amount of money spent on such programs, and describes current practices that general aviation airports use to keep their facilities safe and secure.
11-03/Topic S04-03 Identification of the Requirements and Training to Obtain Driving Privileges on Airfields
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 12: Preventing Vehicle–Aircraft Incidents During Winter Operations and Periods of Low Visibility examines factors affecting safe winter operations and the prevention of runway incursions by airport snow removal equipment operators.
11-03/Topic S04-05 Bird Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques on Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 15: Identification of the Requirements and Training to Obtain Driving Privileges on Airfields explores information on the requirements and training required to obtain driving privileges on airport airfields, and the differences and similarities among the various airports throughout the country. The report also examines information on the types of training programs available to airport employees based on where the employees were authorized to drive.
11-03/Topic S04-06 Current Airport Inspection Practices Regarding FOD/Wildlife Hazards
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 23: Bird Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques for Use on and Near Airports reviews techniques for reducing bird collisions with aircraft and the relative effectiveness of the various techniques.
11-03/Topic S04-07 Lessons Learned from Airport Safety Management Systems Pilot Study
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 26: Current Airport Inspection Practices Regarding FOD (Foreign Object Debris/Damage) details the components of a comprehensive FOD management program, and compiles current practices, techniques, and lists of tools available for use or those currently being used by airports for FOD inspections.
11-03/Topic S04-08 Managing Aerial Firefighting Activities on Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 37: Lessons Learned from Airport Safety Management Systems Pilot Studies is designed to provide airport operators with data and experience from safety management system (SMS) pilot study airports. The report addresses SMS pilot study program management; SMS components design, development, and deployment; and SMS challenges and benefits.
In simple terms, SMS is a proactive business approach to managing and mitigating potential hazards within the organization to improve safety performance. SMS is comprised of four components (or pillars), including safety policy, safety risk management, safety assurance, and safety promotion.
11-03/Topic S04-09 Model Mutual Aid Agreements for Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 32: Managing Aerial Firefighting Activities on Airports highlights current airport and agency--primarily the U.S. Forest Service--practices, policies, and procedures at airports called upon to support aerial wildland firefighting suppression efforts.
11-03/Topic S04-10 Safety Reporting Systems at Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 45: Model Mutual Aid Agreements for Airports presents information on mutual aid agreements, addressing nearly every type of emergency that could affect airports and require outside resources. The report is designed to assist airport operators in creating and sustaining effective emergency management mutual aid partnerships by documenting the specifics of existing agreements.
11-03/Topic S04-11 Effective Cooperation among Airports and Local and Regional Emergency Management Agencies for Disaster Preparedness and Response
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 58: Safety Reporting Systems at Airports describes safety reporting methods and systems for airports certificated under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 139 by assessing current practices, processes, and systems used to collect and analyze safety data and information.
11-03/Topic S04-12 Airport Emergency Post-event Recovery Practices
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 50: Effective Cooperation Among Airports and Local and Regional Emergency Management Agencies for Disaster Preparedness and Response focuses on how airports and their emergency management partners establish and sustain effective working relationships, and methods of identifying problems and rebuilding damaged relationships. The report is designed to provide airports and their emergency response allies access to a full range of policies, programs, practices, and relationships for establishing and sustaining good working relationships.
11-03/Topic S04-13 Combining Mixed Use Flight Operations Safely at Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 60: Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices explores approaches to improving the overall resiliency of airports through planning for the recovery phase of emergency response.
11-03/Topic S04-14 Airport Safety Risk Management Panel Activities and Outcomes
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 74: Combining Mixed-Use Flight Operations Safely at Airports documents practices in safely accommodating mixed-use aeronautical activity at airports. Mixed-use aeronautical activity refers to the different categories of aircraft a public-use airport is intended to accommodate in compliance with FAA sponsor assurances. These categories include gliders, helicopters, ultralight vehicles, balloons, airships, blimps, skydiving, aerial applications for agriculture and firefighting, banner towing, aerobatic practice, and similar flight operations. Also discussed are unmanned aircraft systems and radio-controlled model aircraft activity that take place on an airport and can become part of the mix of an airport’s operation. Not discussed are seaplane operations; ACRP Synthesis 61: Practices in Preserving and Developing Public-Use Seaplane Bases covers this topic.
11-03/Topic S04-15 Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 71: Airport Safety Risk Management Panel Activities and Outcomes compiles information and tools that help Part 139 airports conduct Safety Risk Assessments (SRAs) effectively. This report enhances ACRP Report 131: A Guidebook for Safety Risk Management for Airports with additional tools and templates, and presents the conclusions from the survey and interviews as well as the main findings from the literature review. Several tools and templates, including a Quick Reference Guide and a template for the SRA briefing, are provided in the appendices of this report.
11-03/Topic S04-16 Emergency Communication Planning for Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 75: Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports documents the manner in which non-towered airports provide advisories to pilots regarding winds, traffic, and runways in use. Unlike with pilot advisories, there is little guidance available for airport operators in providing airport advisories. The objective of this report is to aggregate available guidance on this topic and document information from non-towered airports with at least 50,000 annual aircraft operations. The report includes a literature review and a telephone interview survey of 165 non-towered airports. Six case examples are included, documenting effective airport advisory programs in place at airports.
11-03/Topic S04-17 Tabletop and Full-Scale Emergency Exercises for General Aviation, Non-Hub, and Small Hub Airports
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 73: Emergency Communications Planning for Airports explores emergency communications planning and is specifically designed for use by airport senior management, public information officers, and first responders and emergency managers. The report includes sample communication plan tables of contents, field operations guides, and a checklist of effective communications plans.
11-03/Topic S04-18 Uses of Social Media to Inform Operational Response and Recovery During an Airport Emergency
ACRP Synthesis 72: Tabletop and Full-Scale Emergency Exercises for General Aviation, Non-Hub, and Small Hub Airports provides small airports with the tools and practices needed to practice emergency response. The report provides sample exercise tools and plans, a checklist of effective practices for tabletop and full-scale emergency exercises, and a road map for developing an effective exercise program.
11-03/Topic S04-19 Incorporating ADA and Functional Needs in Emergency Exercises
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 82: Uses of Social Media to Inform Operational Response and Recovery During an Airport Emergency summarizes airport practices and tools used by airport emergency managers. Using social media for emergency management, airports glean information and intelligence from the stream of posts and messages passing through social media and then apply this information to enhance situational awareness and resource allocation decisions by emergency managers. Such uses raise the stakes for timeliness of data extraction and validation of the results, especially if the information is going to be used for resource allocation and other decision making.
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 90: Incorporating ADA and Functional Needs in Emergency Exercises explores how airports include persons with disabilities and others with access or functional needs (DAFN) into emergency exercises. Because not all functional needs are visually or readily apparent, airports find that including these community members in DAFN on emergency exercises improves the safety of passengers, airport visitors, and employees at airports. The report describes effective practices and provides additional resources and tools in the following report appendices:
11-03/Topic S04-20 Airport Incident Reporting Practices
11-03/Topic S04-21 Models for Law Enforcement at Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 95: Airport Incident Reporting Practices focuses on current practices for defining, collecting, aggregating, protecting, and reporting airport organizational incident information. The report is designed to assist those airport operators seeking to understand the nature of airport incident reporting and its importance for organizational learning and effectiveness, risk management, operational safety, and worker safety.
11-03/Topic S04-22 Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports
Each airport and its law enforcement model have a unique set of relationships, operations, and resources.
The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 107: Models for Law Enforcement at Airports provides a concise body of knowledge to assist airport management, operators, researchers, and users by detailing the varying types of law enforcement models available to them.
The types of airport law enforcement models include airport police, city police, county sheriffs, departments of public safety, and state police. Many airports operate by using layers of law enforcement responses composed of more than one law enforcement model.
11-03/Topic S04-23 Emergency Working Groups at Airports
The needs of airports may vary depending on the types of operations typically conducted at the airport, as well as the type of weather common to the airport. The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 105: Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports aims to provide the operators of general aviation (GA) airports a comprehensive source of information about airport-based weather observation options so they may make informed decisions to support the specific operational needs of their airport. Weather observations at airports can come from either FAA-approved (certified) or advisory (non-certified) sources. Weather reporting at a GA airport, whether certified or not, typically comes from automated sources, as human observers are increasingly being phased out or are stationed mainly at commercial service airports.
Although air travel is one of the safest modes of travel, and airports are among the safest public spaces in the United States, air-travel incidents do occur. ACRP Synthesis 99: Emergency Working Groups at Airports documents these working groups and how they assist victims and their families and friends in the weeks following an incident.
11-03/Topic S04-24 Practices in Airport Emergency Plans
11-03/Topic S04-25 Escalator Falls
11-03/Topic S04-26 Managing a Flight Diversion with an Emergency Response at Small, Non-Hub, or General Aviation Airports
Escalator falls are a significant concern for risk management staff at airports and in mass transit systems. The major differences between the airport and transit environments are the amount of baggage carried onto the escalator and the level of unfamiliarity of people with the escalator environment in airports.
The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 109: Escalator Falls identifies and describes methods to mitigate risks associated with escalator usage.
Risk management professionals from both the airport and transit environments have expressed interest in developing common reporting schemes and more robust data analysis to identify common causes of escalator falls.
The objective of this synthesis is: (1) to discover and describe current practices for handling diverted flights that involve an emergency response, and (2) to provide information on practices to small hub, non-hub, and general aviation airport that may receive a diverted passenger flight and not have appropriate staff, resources, or equipment available. The audience for this report is airport operations and emergency response personnel at small hub, non-hub, and general aviation airports.
11-03/Topic S06-01 Synthesis of Aviation Workforce Development Practices
11-03/Topic S06-02 Airport Self-Inspection Procedures and Training Practices
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 18: Aviation Workforce Development Practices explores airport operating entity jobs and related skill sets needed to perform those jobs. The report also identifies potential ways to gain training on the skill sets needed to fulfill airport-related jobs and notes gaps where skill sets, and educational and advancement opportunities, may exist.
11-03/Topic S06-03 Exploring Airport Employee Commuting and Parking Strategies
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 27: Airport Self-Inspection Practices provides insight into common airport self-inspection practices. For the purposes of ACRP Synthesis 27, a comprehensive self-inspection program includes the components of training; inspecting; reporting discrepancies and findings; follow-up, resolution, and close-out; and quality control. The report may be useful to airports in benchmarking their self-inspection programs to peer airports and practices considered successful by regional U.S. Federal Aviation Administration personnel.
11-03/Topic S06-04 Helping New Maintenance Hires Adapt to the Airport Operating Environment
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 36: Exploring Airport Employee Commute and Parking Strategies analyzes what is known about airport employee commute patterns and commute modes. The report addresses alternatives to the drive alone commute for airport employees, the effectiveness and challenges of airport employee commute options programs, and commute options programs offered by non-airport employers that might be applicable to the airport environment.
11-03/Topic S06-05 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 49: Helping New Maintenance Hires Adapt to the Airport Operating Environment highlights comprehensive safety and security training resources as well as successful practices for new maintenance hires at general aviation airports.
11-03/Topic S06-06 Airport Workforce Programs Supporting Employee Well-being
More airport operations/management academic programs at both the high school and community college levels would help the airport industry. With baby boomers currently reaching retirement age at the rate of 10,000 each day, and later generations much smaller in size, new employees are not entering the workforce swiftly enough to replace those leaving because of retirement, illness, and other complicating factors. As a result, the aviation industry, like others, is experiencing a significant labor shortage. With no end in sight, the industry has joined forces in a number of unique partnerships in an effort to not only enhance the quality of current aviation graduates, but also stimulate interest in aviation careers among college students, high school students, and even middle school and elementary school students. The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 103: Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges points out the many characteristics of high school and community college aviation programs throughout the country, which could prove useful to airport management. By better understanding the academic programs producing the next generation of aviation professionals, airports can develop proactive efforts to promote the airport profession to aviation programs in their local area and influence young people to seriously consider airports as a viable career path, thus positively affecting the future of the airport industry.
11-03/Topic S06-07 Evolution of Airport Work Models and Strategies
Airport employees face a variety of stressors in their daily work lives, and there are numerous and varied approaches that airports are currently taking to focus on employee well-being.
The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 113: Airport Workforce Programs Supporting Employee Well-Being details the most commonly used well-being program offerings at airports.
Benefits of these programs to airports include reduced health care costs, improved productivity, decreased absenteeism, improved employee recruitment and retention, and camaraderie and teamwork among employees. By participating in well-being programs, employees can also experience personal benefits, such as improved physical health, increased job satisfaction, and other emotional benefits.
11-03/Topic S07-01 Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports
The objective of this research is to provide information on those airports who experimented in remote work, options for airports that did not participate in remote work, and identify emerging trends. The audience for this research are airport management, airport human resources staff, and IT staff that supports airports.
11-03/Topic S07-02 Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 51: Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports describes the challenges of wayfinding, fatigue, technology and equipment, and needed amenities, as well as the practices that airports are enacting to accommodate and improve the airport experience of aging travelers. The report is designed to help users better understand the aging demographic, and define issues and implement effective practices to accommodate aging travelers at airports.
11-03/Topic S07-03 Airfield Apron/Ramp Surface Markings
Access to relevant, precise, and timely information is crucial for a pleasant experience in air travel. Travelers with cognitive and sensory disabilities, aging travelers, and travelers with limited English proficiency need alternative approaches to those provided for general travelers for accessing and communicating air travel information.
The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 101: Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility details how airports and airlines are leading the way in developing new and creative services to provide information and thus enhance passenger access and mobility.
Among the report's findings are the following. Airports’ current efforts to improve passenger access and mobility follow three key trends: commitment to seamless customer experience, development of a sense of place at airports, and improvement of efficiency and personalized service using technology such as biometrics, robotics, and artificial intelligence.
The objective of this synthesis is to document NPIAS airport ramp and apron marking variation, including but not limited to, aircraft parking (hardstand or gate), taxilanes, and airside roadway system areas. The audience for this synthesis report is airport industry personnel responsible for airside operations, safety, or planning and design.
11-03/Topic S08-01 Airport Terminal Facility Activation Techniques
11-03/Topic S09-01 Rubber Removal Techniques to Minimize Damage on Grooved Runways
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 20: Airport Terminal Facility Activation Techniques explores lessons learned during terminal activations at 13 domestic and international airport facilities. The report is designed to help identify effective airport terminal facility activation practices.
11-03/Topic S09-02 Common Airport Pavement Maintenance Practices
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 11: Impact of Airport Rubber Removal Techniques on Runways explores the impacts of four common rubber removal methods on runways--waterblasting, chemical removal, shotblasting, and mechanical means (including sand blasting, scraping, brooming, milling, and grinding). Some regard this field as more of an art than a science. Thus, this report seeks to find those factors that can be controlled by the engineer when developing a runway rubber removal program. The synthesis identifies different approaches, models, and commonly used practices, recognizing the differences in each of the different rubber removal methods.
11-03/Topic S09-03 Subsurface Utility Engineering Information Management for Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 22: Common Airport Pavement Maintenance Practices explores how airports implement a pavement maintenance management program, including inspecting and tracking pavement condition, scheduling maintenance, identifying necessary funds, and treating distresses in asphalt and concrete pavements.
11-03/Topic S09-04 Issues with Use of Airfield LED Light Fixtures
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 34: Subsurface Utility Engineering Information for Airports examines ways in which information on subsurface utilities is collected, maintained, and used by airports, their consultants, and the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to help increase the effectiveness of, and enhance safety during, infrastructure development programs at airports. The report also compares the current state of technology and effective processes from other industry sectors with what airports do today.
11-03/Topic S09-05 Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structure While in Use
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 35: Issues With Use of Airfield LED Light Fixtures documents the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) airfield lighting systems.
11-03/Topic S09-06 Airside Snow Removal Practices for Small Airports with Limited Budgets
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 47: Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structures While in Use provides information on developing and implementing successful maintenance and repair strategies for in-use airport parking structures that involve the least impact on the airport patrons, revenue stream, and facility operations.
11-03/Topic S09-07 Building Information Modeling for Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 67: Airside Snow Removal Practices for Small Airports with Limited Budgets covers challenges and successful strategies that airport operators use at small airports with significant budget and other constraints to coordinate and conduct snow removal operations.
11-03/Topic S09-08 Practices to Mitigate Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavement at Airports
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 70: Building Information Modeling for Airports summarizes current state of the art and practice for Building Information Modeling (BIM). BIM is a digital representation of a facility’s physical and functional characteristics. BIM offers tools that allow airport decision makers to understand all components of a facility—their location, and their attributes, both graphically and systematically—to minimize the total cost of owning and operating an airport facility. The report provides a snapshot of experiences related to the emergence of BIM in North American airports. In addition to the report, a PowerPoint presentation details use-cases of BIM at airports.
11-03/Topic S09-09 Automated Pavement Condition Survey Practices at Airports
Some concrete pavements commonly used at airports are susceptible to the destructive effects of alkali-silica reaction (ASR). The presence of ASR on concrete pavements can have a devastating effect on pavement performance, not only in terms of reduced functionality, but also in terms of shortened service lives. The focus of ACRP Synthesis 96: Practices to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Affected Pavements at Airports is on current practices for mitigating ASR in affected pavements at airports. Given the substantial initial investment required for pavement, airports are interested in using mitigations to slow the effects of ASR and prolong the life of airfield concrete pavements. This synthesis identifies the current state of the practice regarding the mitigation measures used on existing ASR-affected airport pavements that service aircraft and summarizes the experiences and practices of airports in dealing with the distress (including conventional treatments, but also any new or emerging technologies).
The objective of this synthesis is to document airport practices, challenges, and lessons learned in conducting automated pavement condition surveys. The study is intended to showcase practices, integration of automated data collection into pavement management systems, and efforts needed for reporting pavement condition. The intended audience for this compilation of practice includes airport agencies and staff responsible for airfield pavement maintenance management systems.
11-03/Topic S09-10 Airport Turf and Vegetation Management
11-03/Topic S10-01 Counting Aircraft Operations at Non-Towered Airports
OBJECTIVE AND AUDIENCE
The objective of this research is to provide guidance on current airfield practices for turf and vegetation management given the various constraints of staffing, equipment, safety, funding, climate, and regulations. The audience for this research is airfield managers and staff from general aviation and non-hub airports.
11-03/Topic S10-02 Common-Use Facilities and Equipment at Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 4: Counting Aircraft Operations at Non-Towered Airports explores the different methods used by states, airports, and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) of counting and estimating aircraft operations at non-towered airports. The report also examines new technologies that can be used for these counts and estimates.
11-03/Topic S10-03 Airport Pavement Deicing Products, Use and Corrosion Damage
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 8: Common Use Facilities and Equipment at Airports explores common use technology that enables an airport operator to take space that has previously been exclusive to a single airline and make it available for use by multiple airlines and their passengers.
11-03/Topic S10-04 Airport Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 6: Impact of Airport Pavement Deicing Products on Aircraft and Airfield Infrastructure explores how airports chemically treat their airport pavements to mitigate snow and ice, and the chemicals used. The report also examines the effects of pavement deicing products on aircraft and airfield infrastructure, and highlights knowledge gaps in the subject.
11-03/Topic S10-05 Ramp Safety Practices
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 21: Airport Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction explores energy efficiency improvements being implemented at airports across the country that are low cost and short payback.
11-03/Topic S10-06 Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 29: Ramp Safety Practices addresses the current state of ground handling practices, focusing on safety measures and training. Issues addressed in the report include ramp safety operations, staff roles and responsibilities, safety training, audit and inspection programs, safety violation programs, and collaborative safety initiatives, such as foreign object debris programs.
11-03/Topic S10-07 Expediting Aircraft Recovery at Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 28: Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation explores physical, visual, and communications systems interference impacts from energy technologies on airports and aviation safety. The energy technologies that are the focus of this report include the following:
• solar photovoltaic panels and farms,
• concentrating solar power plants,
• wind turbine generators and farms, and
• traditional power plants.
11-03/Topic S10-08 Conducting Aeronautical Special Events at Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 38: Expediting Aircraft Recovery at Airports includes suggested procedures to help airports expedite the recovery of disabled aircraft that are designed to avoid injury to personnel, damage to airport equipment, and secondary damage to the aircraft. For the purposes of the report, a disable aircraft is defined as on that is unable to move using its power after an excursion from a runway or taxiway.
11-03/Topic S10-09 Airport Wildlife Population Management
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 41: Conducting Aeronautical Special Events at Airports consolidates available information and lessons learned on how to successfully plan, organize, and conduct an aeronautical special event and restore normal operations after the event. For the purposes of this report, aeronautical special events are defined as those events that involve aviation activities or aircraft.
11-03/Topic S10-10 Habitat Management to Deter Wildlife at Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 39: Airport Wildlife Population Management provides direct wildlife population control techniques for reducing wildlife collisions with aircraft. In addition, the report summarizes the ecological foundation of wildlife population control and management. ACRP Synthesis 39 is designed to supplement ACRP Synthesis 23: Bird Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques for Use on and Near Airports. ACRP Synthesis 23 provides a synthesis of nonlethal wildlife control measures focusing on birds. The combined information from the two syntheses is designed to help airports develop an effective, integrated wildlife population control strategy and program.
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 52: Habitat Management to Deter Wildlife at Airports presents information on habitat management to deter wildlife at airports and manage risk to aviation. It is the third of three related syntheses of airport practice reports and completes the series wildlife risk management at airports. ACPR Synthesis builds on previous ACRP documents, including ACRP Synthesis 23, ACRP Report 32, and ACRP Synthesis 39, which address bird deterrence and harassment techniques, various wildlife hazards and control techniques, and population management methods, respectively.
11-03/Topic S10-11 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at Airports Parking Facilities
11-03/Topic S10-12 Airport Response to Special Events
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 54: Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at Airport Parking Facilities is designed as a primer on electric vehicle (EV) charging and includes information on policy approaches, infrastructure needs, and funding mechanisms that airports have used in EV hosting. The report summarizes the state of the EV industry, highlights the motivations for airport sponsors to provide EV charging stations, identifies current EV charging technologies, and describes practices for installing EV charging stations at airports in terms of finances, planning, implementation, and operation of the charging stations.
11-03/Topic S10-13 Overview of Airport Fueling Operations
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 57: Airport Response to Special Events explores how airports plan, manage, and recover from special events in order to help minimize the event’s effects on an airport’s regular operations. The synthesis explores issues related to planning, organizing, and applying lessons learned, as well as addressing potential surprises and impacts on operations and customer services related to a variety of non-aeronautical events that occur both on and off an airport. ACRP Synthesis 57 offers six case examples designed to help demonstrate how airports of all sizes plan, manage, and recover from special events. ACRP Synthesis 57 can serve as a companion document to ACRP Synthesis 41: Conducting Aeronautical Special Events at Airports. ACRP Synthesis 41 focuses on aeronautical events such as air shows, airport open houses, aircraft static displays, and fly-ins.
11-03/Topic S10-14 Issues Related to Accommodating Animals Traveling through Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 63: Overview of Airport Fueling Operations explores airport fueling system operations at all sizes of airports. The report describes fueling standards and regulations, common operations and components, and serves as a reference for a number of fueling processes and procedures. On-airport fueling systems and components are the main focus of the report.
11-03/Topic S10-15 Current Landscape of UAS Use at Airports
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 64: Issues Related to Accommodating Animals Traveling Through Airports explores ways for airports to develop a coordinated approach in animal transportation to better accommodate the well-being of animals traveling through airports. The report identifies pertinent regulations; explores issues and ranges of accommodation requirements and strategies to respond to issues; and illustrates effective airport practices to help accommodate animals traveling through airports.
The unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) industry is on the cutting edge of aviation innovation. Airports, including tenants and contractors, are discovering the benefits of UAS to their operations and bottom line. Yet, with the diversity of UAS applications at airports, there has been a lack of relevant industry data on this topic to inform the airport industry on current practices. The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 104: Current Landscape of Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Airports seeks to understand the degree of UAS use, including specific applications, by three groups: airports, airport contractors, and airport tenants. Using responses from 130 airports, one of the report's findings is that approximately 9% of participating airports are actively using UAS for airport purposes.
11-03/Topic S10-16 Airport Operations Training at Small Airports
11-03/Topic S10-17 Agricultural Operations on Airport Grounds
11-03/Topic S10-18 Considerations for Establishing and Maintaining Successful Bee Programs on Airports
The increasing need to use airport land for non-aeronautical revenue and decrease operating expenses may generate consideration of on-airport farming operations and agricultural leasing.
The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 117: Agricultural Operations on Airport Grounds compiles literature and practices at airports to initiate and manage agricultural operations on airport grounds.
The objective of this synthesis is to compile current practices at airports in promoting and establishing native plants on airport grounds that enhancing forage for both honey and native bees and support airport goals. The audience for this research is operations and maintenance staff members responsible for airfield open space and other uses that support the airport mission.
11-03/Topic S10-19 Airport Landside Data, Collection, and Application
11-03/Topic S10-20 Identifying Military Resources and Strategies to Improve Civilian Airport Resiliency
The objective of this research is to document landside data, collection methods, analysis and interpretation, and its application in decision-making at airports. For this synthesis, landside is the portion of the airport between the airport entrance or access points to boarding gates. The audience for this research is airport staff responsible for making decisions about planning, design, customer experience, and day-to-day operations.