The National Academies

ACRP Synthesis 11-03/Topic S01-22 [Active (Synthesis)]

Last Mile in General Aviation - Courtesy Vehicles and other forms of Ground Transportation
[ ACRP 11-03 (Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices) ]

  Project Data
Funds: $45,000
Authorization to Begin Work: 6/10/2018 -- estimated
Staff Responsibility: Gail R. Staba
Research Agency: Airport Amin LLC
Principal Investigator: Shawn Germolus
Fiscal Year: 2019

Final Scope

General aviation supports a community economic ecosystem.  Maintaining easy connectivity between the community and the airport is an important focus of airport owners/operators and fixed base operator tenants.  Travelers arrive and depart from small airports intending visits to diverse off-airport locations.  Ground transportation between the general aviation facility and those locations may be less available at small community-owned airports without regular scheduled service.  Last mile transportation could be supplied by a range of transportation services found regularly at large airports.  Last mile solutions such as courtesy vehicles, shuttles, taxis, rental cars, public transit, app ride hailing, bike sharing, and partnerships with non-traditional vehicle operators can deliver connectivity.  Nonprimary commercial service airports that may also have last mile connectivity issues will gain valuable information from this synthesis of practice, but specific practices to serve passengers at these airports are not included.

The objective of this synthesis is to compile options, practices and tools for a sustainable last mile strategy to connect users of airports to the community.  The audience for this report are airport owners/operators, other government entities, and general service providers.

This synthesis research compiles practice in last mile connectivity.  A concise report and supporting appendices would provide, but is not limited to:

• Background on the importance of last mile connectivity
• Compilation of existing literature on last mile transportation options
• Survey of airports and FBOs (diverse geography, size, community characteristics) on existing last mile transportation options
     o Basic airport information
     o How courtesy vehicles are procured, operated, insured, and maintained
     o Types and numbers of vehicles
     o Coordination strategies with potential providers such as rental car, local vehicle dealerships, taxis, transit, app ride hailing, etc.
     o Protocols to manage arrangements, including risk management and security considerations, facilities/staging, equipment, operations--staging/lighting/access control, communication, marketing and public information.
     o Fees, budgeting and cost
• End user needs, challenges, and preferences.
• Case examples from interviews of airport operators, FBOs, pilots, and/or transportation providers for each type of last mile solution describing genesis, results, challenges and lessons learned.
• Gaps in knowledge that may be described in the report for further research. 
• Appendices that include policies, checklists, partnering agreements, contracts, insurance, facility layouts, signage, web information, reporting or other tools that airport managers could use to implement and manage last mile connectivity.

Partial Information Sources:

ACRP Report 146:  Commercial Ground Transportation at Airports: Best Practices http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/173350.aspx 
Bricker, L. R., G. P. Cleary, and J. B. McDaniel. (2008). ACRP Legal Research Digest 3: Survey
of Laws and Regulations of Airport Commercial Ground Transportation. Washington,
DC: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.
Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Highway Administration. (1996). Airport Ground
Access Planning Guide. Washington, DC: US Department of Transportation, National
Transportation Library.
Hoel, L. A. (1998). Evaluating Improvements in Landside Access for Airports. Charlottesville,
VA: Virginia Transportation Research Council.
Louis Berger Group, Inc. (2009). Airport Management Study: Lehigh Northampton Airport
Shapiro, P. S. Intermodal Ground Access to Airports: A Planning Guide—A Good Start. 
Cheng, S. F., Nguyen, D. T., & Lau, H. C. (2014). Mechanisms for arranging ride sharing and fare splitting for last-mile travel demands. Paper presented at the 13th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2014.
Wang, X. (2014) A cellular automata model of opening boundary conditions based on community bus route. Vol. 475-476. Applied Mechanics and Materials (pp. 723-728). https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84891111169&doi=10.4028%2fwww.scientific.net%2fAMM.475-476.723&partnerID=40&md5=cfef71ca209574bc7b994f1df46df29f
Zhang, D., Zhao, J., Zhang, F., Jiang, R., & He, T. (2015). Feeder: Supporting last-mile transit with extreme-scale urban infrastructure data. Paper presented at the IPSN 2015 - Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (Part of CPS Week). https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84954097976&doi=10.1145%2f2737095.2737121&partnerID=40&md5=bc9ed184e52792473132d8f174a591f0
Fan, X., Liu, J., Wang, Z., & Jiang, Y. (2016). Navigating the last mile with crowdsourced driving information. Paper presented at the Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84988884669&doi=10.1109%2fINFCOMW.2016.7562099&partnerID=40&md5=e0782eeae6820924458e2038c68638bd
Vernier, M., Redmill, K., Ozguner, U., Kurt, A., & Guvenc, B. A. (2016). OSU SMOOTH in a Smart City. Paper presented at the 2016 1st International Workshop on Science of Smart City Operations and Platforms Engineering (SCOPE) in Partnership with Global City Teams Challenge (GCTC), SCOPE - GCTC 2016. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84983432605&doi=10.1109%2fSCOPE.2016.7515057&partnerID=40&md5=811881f96a2f6bd37d022595f2e5fd95
Fan, X., Liu, J., Wang, Z., Jiang, Y., & Liu, X. S. (2017). CrowdNavi: Demystifying last mile navigation with crowdsourced driving information. Ieee Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 13(2), 771-781. doi:10.1109/TII.2016.2616107 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85018171496&doi=10.1109%2fTII.2016.2616107&partnerID=40&md5=0d1ffb6eaae25cc98b2ea88a54f6ce12
Hasebe, K., Kato, K., Abe, H., Akiya, R., & Kawamoto, M. (2017). Traffic management for last-mile public transportation systems using autonomous vehicles. Paper presented at the 2017 International Smart Cities Conference, ISC2 2017. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85039964285&doi=10.1109%2fISC2.2017.8090821&partnerID=40&md5=ba9cb32b23925cae497de980a7fa4733
Moorthy, A., De Kleine, R., Keoleian, G., Good, J., & Lewis, G. (2017). Shared Autonomous Vehicles as a Sustainable Solution to the Last Mile Problem: A Case Study of Ann Arbor-Detroit Area. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, 10(2). doi:10.4271/2017-01-1276 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85018302135&doi=10.4271%2f2017-01-1276&partnerID=40&md5=86aaf40911e7b3d4e8290b1a68dd1707
Song, Ziqi; He, Yi. Innovative Park-and-Ride Management for Livable Communities.  Transportation Research Center for Livable Communities; Utah State University, Logan; Department of Transportation, 2015, 31p https://trid.trb.org/view/1403048
Ma, Ziyi; Urbanek, Matthew; Pardo, Maria Alejandra; Chow, Joseph Y J; Lai, Xuebo. Spatial Welfare Effects of Shared Taxi Operating Policies for First Mile Airport Access. International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, Volume 6, Issue 4, 2017, pp 301-315 

Topic Panel
Debbie K. Alke
Kreg Anderson, Alexandria Municipal Airport-Changler Field (KAXN)
Kimberly Fabend, C&S Companies
Jim R. Halley, III, Florida DOT
Clayton Stambaugh, Illinois DOT
Walt Stringer, Mineta Transportation Institute Researcher
William Reinhardt, Federal Aviation Administration
Shelly S. Simi, National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO)
Claire E. Randall, Transportation Research Board

Shawn Germolus, Airport Amin LLC

TRB Staff
Gail R. Staba

First meeting: May 9, 2019, Washington, DC
Teleconference: June 18, 2019
Second meeting: January 17, 2020, Washington, DC



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