The National Academies

ACRP Synthesis 11-03/Topic S02-21 [Active (Synthesis)]

Practices in Airport Renewable Energy Projects
[ ACRP 11-03 (Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices) ]

  Project Data
Funds: $45,000
Authorization to Begin Work: 10/23/2018 -- estimated
Staff Responsibility: Gail R. Staba
Research Agency: Barrett Energy Resources Group LLC
Principal Investigator: Stephen Barrett
Fiscal Year: 2019

Final Scope

Renewable energy is now mainstream as a result of technological advancement, market maturity, cost effectiveness, and public sector policy and investment with profound benefits to power markets. As airports respond to a variety of stakeholders regarding potential environmental impacts of development and operation, providing renewable energy project enhancements that respond to stakeholder concerns is one way to advance local acceptance and development approvals. Including renewable energy resources at airports is one option that can address concerns regarding the environmental impacts of the airports and air travel.

Renewable energy delivers not only environmental enhancements but can also result in infrastructure benefits, cost savings, and potentially new sources of revenue and resiliency. It diversifies the sources of energy and decentralizes the power generation network increasing competition, expanding infrastructure investments, and improving national energy security and reliability of the electrical grid. It has also demonstrated the viability of a future carbon free economy with the design of high performance buildings and facilities that use less energy and supply what is needed through renewable sources. There are many US airport that have implemented projects on airport and executed agreements off airport to bring renewable energy to the airport.

The objective of this research is to compile a comprehensive matrix of airports that have developed renewable energy projects and their typology and capacity; and to provide case studies that further identity drivers, financial mechanisms, and lessons learned to serve as examples for other airports interested in pursuing similar projects. The audience for this report is airport management and may include energy managers, airport planners, and others that may have to make the case for renewable energy projects to decision makers.

The research proposed concludes in a concise report of practice and includes, but is not limited to literature review and industry survey/interview to identify and document:

• All known airport renewable energy projects to 9/1/2019 (i.e., a matrix that includes airport, state, technology, capacity of project, ownership)
• Case examples of renewable energy projects at airports that are most impactful and widely applicable (diverse set of airports by hub size, governance, geographic region, regulated/deregulated energy markets, project ownership-airport v. third party)
o Development processes
o Approvals required
o Stakeholders and agreement parties (e.g., permits, glare and other analyses required)
o Project performance
o Ownership issues (cost of ownership, who operates and maintains)
o Term length (e.g., length of power purchase agreement)
o Average utility rate
o Business case information (e.g., financing, rebates, incentives, credits)
o Lessons learned (positive and negatives)
o Challenges and opportunities (e.g., power purchase, third party agreements, stakeholder issues)
• Appendices in form of checklists, electronic tools, contracts, permits or other documents that would provide guidance to others interested in developing renewable energy projects at airports.
• Knowledge gaps and open items for further research.

The concise report will provide the industry examples for how renewable energy projects have been developed and approved consistent with aeronautical uses and grant assurances.
Partial Information Sources

Barrett, Stephen B, Philip M. Devita, Adam Whiteman et. al.  Renewable Energy as an Airport Revenue Source, Transportation Research Board, ACRP Report 141, 2010.  http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/172634.aspx

Barrett, Stephen B, Philip M. Devita, Jesse R. Lambert et. al.  Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace, Transportation Research Board, ACRP Report 108, 2014.  http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170609.aspx

Barrett, Stephen B, Philip M. Devita, Julie E Kenfield et. al.  Developing a Business Case for Renewable Energy at Airports, Transportation Research Board, ACRP Report 151, 2016.  http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/173592.aspx

Design and Use of a Green Revolving Fund at Airports. [Project].  Airport Cooperative Research Program, Federal Aviation Administration. Start date: 31 Jul. 2016. https://trid.trb.org/view/1418008

Developing A Renewable Resource Strategy at Airports. [Project].  Airport Cooperative Research Program. Start date: 31 Jul. 2015. https://trid.trb.org/view/1363703

Kolpakov, Alexander; Sipiora, Austin Marie; Huss, Jana E. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice, Issue 89, 2018, 65p https://trid.trb.org/view/1526727

Prather, C Daniel. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice, Issue 69, 2016, 118p https://trid.trb.org/view/1405325

Barrett, Steve; Miller, Bruno; Ralston, Phil. Critical Issues in Aviation and the Environment 2014: Renewable Energy. Transportation Research Circular, Issue E-C184, 2014, pp 64-72 https://trid.trb.org/view/1313785

Lurie, Carol; Humblet, Emmanuelle; Steuer, Chris; Lemaster, Kristin. Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System—Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options. ACRP Report, Issue 119, 2014, 240p https://trid.trb.org/view/1339702

Thomson, Barbara; Delaney, Elizabeth. Outcomes of Green Initiatives: Large Airport Experience. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice, Issue 53, 2014, 72p https://trid.trb.org/view/1310622

Baxter, Glenn; Srisaeng, Panarat; Wild, Graham. Sustainable Airport Energy Management: The Case of Kansai International Airport. International Journal for Traffic and Transport Engineering, Volume 8, Issue 3, 2018, pp 334-358 https://trid.trb.org/view/1523883

Walters, Nathan W; Rice, Stephen; Winter, Scott R.; Baugh, Bradley S; Ragbir, Nadine K; Anania, Emily C; Capps, John; Milner, Mattie N. Consumer willingness to pay for new airports that use renewable resources. International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, Volume 4, Issue 2, 2018, pp 79-98 https://trid.trb.org/view/1538675

Florida Airport Sustainability Tracking/Monitoring System. [Project].  Florida Department of Transportation. Start date: 7 Feb. 2017. https://trid.trb.org/view/1454012

Cooper, Coralie; Arthur, David; Epstein, Alex; Po , Carson; Mangar, Abygail; Brecher, Aviva; Breck, Andrew; Forni, Sara. Achieving Airport Carbon Neutrality.  Volpe National Transportation Systems Center; Federal Aviation Administration, 2016, 92p https://trid.trb.org/view/1402510

Marshall, Charles F. Sustainable communities: The Atlanta Airport EcoDistrict. Journal of Airport Management, Volume 10, Issue 2, 2016, pp 138-144 https://trid.trb.org/view/1402380

Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Airport Pavement. [Project].  Research and Innovative Technology Administration. Start date: 1 Jan. 2015. https://trid.trb.org/view/1345677

Barrett, Stephen. Ownership structures and the implications for developing airport solar projects in the USA. Journal of Airport Management, Volume 9, Issue 3, 2015, pp 248-263 https://trid.trb.org/view/1367878

Shafiee, S., & McCay, M. H. (2018). Comparison of different energy storage systems for a small airport facility. Paper presented at the ASME 2018 12th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, ES 2018, collocated with the ASME 2018 Power Conference and the ASME 2018 Nuclear Forum. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85055425134&partnerID=40&md5=09681921f3e36a47f2ee76ae0747bcdb

Mustapha, M., & Mustafa, M. W. (2017). Wind energy potential at Kano airport via weibull parameters. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12(22), 6459-6465. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85035319723&partnerID=40&md5=6814e1f2fc94f089ad018570ac871d16

Hariprasad, V., Anand, A. V., Sahana, J., Priya, P. S., Christopher, A., Singh, R. A., & Jayalakshmi, S. (2017). Energy support to airports by wind systems. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology, ICECA 2017. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85047101341&doi=10.1109%2fICECA.2017.8212767&partnerID=40&md5=c46135712335ebfec9bbca1c68472902

Mostafa, M. F. A., Aleem, S. H. E. A., & Zobaa, A. F. (2017). Risk assessment and possible mitigation solutions for using solar photovoltaic at airports. Paper presented at the 2016 18th International Middle-East Power Systems Conference, MEPCON 2016 - Proceedings. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85015205315&doi=10.1109%2fMEPCON.2016.7836875&partnerID=40&md5=ee2fb6da7b050114d91731cb2aba0f30

Mostafa, M. F. A., Aleem, S. H. E. A., & Ibrahim, A. M. (2017). Using solar photovoltaic at Egyptian airports: Opportunities and challenges. Paper presented at the 2016 18th International Middle-East Power Systems Conference, MEPCON 2016 - Proceedings. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85015245768&doi=10.1109%2fMEPCON.2016.7836874&partnerID=40&md5=2e420e1d236efc7258e074d2c2cd3e48

Madassery, R. P., Alam, M. J. E., & Olsen, W. (2016). Investigating the possibility of a solar PV and battery storage based DC power system at a Brisbane airport corporation pty ltd facility. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2016 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference, AUPEC 2016. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85006821265&doi=10.1109%2fAUPEC.2016.7749371&partnerID=40&md5=8aa5a83a4b8c438163fbe3658ddc4b2b

Schmidt, M., Paul, A., Cole, M., & Ploetner, K. O. (2016). Challenges for ground operations arising from aircraft concepts using alternative energy. Journal of Air Transport Management, 56(Part B), 107-117. doi:10.1016/j.jairtraman.2016.04.023 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84966783917&doi=10.1016%2fj.jairtraman.2016.04.023&partnerID=40&md5=138e735ac6acab32d7f629c79ced241d

Nguyen, T. V., Ariza, A. F., Miller, N. W., & Cremer, I. (2015). A framework for the development of technical requirements for renewable energy systems at a small-scale airport facility. Paper presented at the ASME 2015 9th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, ES 2015, collocated with the ASME 2015 Power Conference, the ASME 2015 13th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, and the ASME 2015 Nuclear Forum. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84950122177&doi=10.1115%2fES2015-49171&partnerID=40&md5=379d3e8ac4f698f82de8145387222ab2

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Zhen, J. L., Lu, J., Huang, G. Q., & Zhang, H. Y. (2017). Groundwater source heat pump application in the heating system of Tibet Plateau airport. Energy and Buildings, 136, 33-42. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.12.008 ://WOS:000392354100004

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Topic Panel

Sheldon Daisley, City of Phoenix Aviation Department
Joakim Osthus, Mead & Hunt, Inc.
Kristoffer Russell, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport
Jon Strobel, Lambert, St. Louis International Airport Job
Amanda Sutton, Denver International Airport
Mitchell Otey, Federal Aviation Administration
Patrick W. Magnotta, Federal Aviation Administration
Melinda Z. Pagliarello, Airports Council International -- North America
Stephen Barrett
Barrett Energy Resources Group LLC
TRB Staff
Gail R. Staba

First meeting: May 30, 2019, Washington, DC
Teleconference: July 10,2019; 1p EDT; fallback July 11, 2019; 3p EDT
Second meeting: December 10, 2019, Washington, DC

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