The National Academies

NCHRP 20-102(11) [Active]

Mobility-on-Demand and Automated Driving Systems: A Framework for Public-Sector Assessment
[ NCHRP 20-102 (Impacts of Connected Vehicles and Automated Vehicles on State and Local Transportation Agencies--Task-Order Support) ]

  Project Data
Funds: $300,000
Staff Responsibility: Leslie C. Harwood
Research Agency: Booz-Allen & Hamilton
Principal Investigator: Susan Shaneen
Effective Date: 5/17/2018
Completion Date: 9/30/2020

A wide variety of mobility-on-demand (MOD) services have developed and proliferated in recent years. They include carsharing, bikesharing, microtransit, transportation network companies (TNCs), and many others. Public agencies and governments are being approached by MOD providers and must determine whether and under what circumstances (including regulations) these services should be encouraged or allowed in their jurisdictions. Community expectations can bring significant pressure on the public sector for expedited approval.
At the same time, automated driving systems (ADS) are becoming more available in all modes of transportation and have potentially revolutionary implications throughout the transportation system. Where MOD is a key enabler of disruptive changes in transportation across all modes (surface, air, and maritime), the convergence of ADS and MOD looks to enable further disruption in both passenger and freight transportation. Accelerated and dynamic research approaches are needed to help close the gap between technological development, public policy-making activity, and deployment.
MOD and ADS are continually evolving and market penetration rates will be inconsistent among regions. Many agencies lack the expertise, resources, and tools to perform evaluations of MOD services or to thoroughly assess propositions. A consistent framework is needed so that potential impacts on transportation policy are considered and alternative approaches can be compared.
The objective of this research is to establish a framework to assess the effects of MOD services and ADS on transportation demand and supply and the broader economic and societal ecosystem. The framework should be developed with the intent of informing relevant standards development organizations.
The framework should focus on the needs of transportation agencies at the state, regional, and local levels; it should also have relevance beyond transportation, including environmental impacts, information technology management (e.g., rights-of-way and radio spectrum allocation for telecommunications), land use planning, economic development, and social welfare. While targeted to agencies, the framework should also be relevant to private sector and research audiences.
The framework should identify a common vocabulary, policy considerations, and potential metrics for both public and private interests in the deployment of emerging technologies and service models in transportation. The framework will also include a toolkit to facilitate the application of model principles and methods for the planning, deployment, and evaluation of MOD services and ADS. Use of the framework should provide a public agency and private providers a basis for negotiations and subsequent monitoring of MOD services and ADS. In principle, successful use of the framework should accelerate delivery of public benefits and curtail potential societal harms of MOD services and ADS.
The framework should include, but not be limited to, addressing the following issues:
  • Geographic context (urban, suburban, rural);  
  • Vehicle and fleet management and ownership;
  • Impacts on travelers;
  • Business models and public funding, including fees and subsidies;
  • Data sharing and data usage;
  • Radio spectrum and rights-of-way for accommodating communications;
  • Public rights-of-way, including curbs and access for travelers and freight;
  • Policy and planning implications, especially integration into the existing processes;
  • Issues likely needing state, local, or federal legislative action or multi-jurisdictional involvement;
  • Workforce implications;
  • Infrastructure and operational implications;
  • Safety;
  • Privacy, liability, legal, and security issues;
  • Direct benefits (safety, productivity, economic competiveness, environmental); and
  • Timing for policy changes given uncertainty about technology and market penetration.
At a minimum, deliverables shall include:
  • Interim report,
  • Draft final report,
  • Final report and stand-alone executive summary,
  • A stand-alone technical memorandum titled “The Implementation of Findings and Products”, and 
  • A toolbox to supplement the framework. The toolbox must include a methodology to measure and evaluate the impacts of MOD and ADS on the transportation system, travelers, and agencies. The toolbox should also include (a) sample agreements between public entities and private providers, (b) sample letters of support related to policy change endeavors, and (c) sample legislative policies. While the framework would, at a minimum, need to cover accessibility, efficiency, congestion, the environment, safety, security, equity, data and planning, and funding, the toolbox should include or point to specific evaluation methodologies that can be supplemented over time.

Literature Review
Develop the Impact Assessment Framework (Draft)
Develop the Impact Assessment Framework (Final)
Stakeholder Engagement
Existing MOD/ADS Implementation Use Cases (Draft)
Existing MOD/ADS Implementation Use Cases (Final)
Developing the Toolkits for Public agencies
Technical Memorandum
Draft Final Deliverables including Guidance and Tools
Revised Final Deliverables


Useful resources for this project may include: 

  1. NCHRP 102 series projects, Impacts of Connected Vehicles and Automated Vehicles on State and Local Transportation Agencies http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=3824
  2. TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition  http://www.trb.org/Publications/TCRPReport95.aspx
  3. TCRP Report 136: Guidebook for Rural Demand-Response Transportation: Measuring, Assessing, and Improving Performance  http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/162701.aspx
  4. FHWA Primer on Shared Mobility: Current Practices and Guiding Principles  https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop16022/index.htm
  5. FHWA Primer on Smartphone Applications to Influence Travel Choices: Practices and Policies  https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop16023/index.htm
  6. SAE/TRB Shared and Digital Mobility Committee  https://www.sae.org/works/committeeHome.do?comtID=TEVSDMC
  7. SAE/AASHTO Active Safety Road Markings for Machine Vision Systems Working Group     https://www.sae.org/works/committeeHome.do?comtID=TEVSSRM
  8. Shared Mobility Toolkit  www.SharedUseMobilityCenter.org/tools/  
  9. Berkeley Haas Tech Challenge http://www.haastechchallenge.org/
  10. NCHRP Legal Research Digest 69: A Look at the Legal Environment for Driverless Vehicles  http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/173557.aspx
  11. TCRP Report 188: Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit  http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/174653.aspx


STATUS (February 2021)

Final deliverables have been submitted. Publication decision pending.

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