The National Academies

NCHRP 20-102(11) [Active]

Mobility-on-Demand and Automated Driving Systems: A Framework for Public-Sector Assessment
[ NCHRP 20-102 (Impacts of Connected Vehicles and Automated Vehicles on State and Local Transportation Agencies--Task-Order Support) ]

  Project Data
Funds: $300,000
Staff Responsibility: Stephan A. Parker
Research Agency: Booz-Allen & Hamilton
Principal Investigator: Susan Shaneen
Effective Date: 5/17/2018
Completion Date: 11/16/2018

A wide variety of mobility-on-demand (MOD) services have developed and proliferated in recent years. They include carsharing, bikesharing, microtransit, transportation network companies (TNCs), and many others. Public agencies and governments are being approached by MOD providers and must determine whether and under what circumstances (including regulations) these services should be encouraged or allowed in their jurisdictions. Community expectations can bring significant pressure on the public sector for expedited approval.
At the same time, automated driving systems (ADS) are becoming more available in all modes of transportation and have potentially revolutionary implications throughout the transportation system. Where MOD is a key enabler of disruptive changes in transportation across all modes (surface, air, and maritime), the convergence of ADS and MOD looks to enable further disruption in both passenger and freight transportation. Accelerated and dynamic research approaches are needed to help close the gap between technological development, public policy-making activity, and deployment.
MOD and ADS are continually evolving and market penetration rates will be inconsistent among regions. Many agencies lack the expertise, resources, and tools to perform evaluations of MOD services or to thoroughly assess propositions. A consistent framework is needed so that potential impacts on transportation policy are considered and alternative approaches can be compared.
The objective of this research is to establish a framework to assess the effects of MOD services and ADS on transportation demand and supply and the broader economic and societal ecosystem. The framework should be developed with the intent of informing relevant standards development organizations.
The framework should focus on the needs of transportation agencies at the state, regional, and local levels; it should also have relevance beyond transportation, including environmental impacts, information technology management (e.g., rights-of-way and radio spectrum allocation for telecommunications), land use planning, economic development, and social welfare. While targeted to agencies, the framework should also be relevant to private sector and research audiences.
The framework should identify a common vocabulary, policy considerations, and potential metrics for both public and private interests in the deployment of emerging technologies and service models in transportation. The framework will also include a toolkit to facilitate the application of model principles and methods for the planning, deployment, and evaluation of MOD services and ADS. Use of the framework should provide a public agency and private providers a basis for negotiations and subsequent monitoring of MOD services and ADS. In principle, successful use of the framework should accelerate delivery of public benefits and curtail potential societal harms of MOD services and ADS.
The NCHRP is seeking the insights of proposers on how to best achieve the project objective. Proposals are expected to describe a research plan that can realistically be accomplished within the constraints of available funds and contract time. Proposals must present the proposer’s current thinking described in sufficient detail to demonstrate their understanding of the issues and the soundness of their approach in meeting the research objectives.
A kick-off conference call between the research team and the NCHRP project panel shall be scheduled as soon as practical after the contract’s execution.  
The work proposed must be divided into tasks and proposers must describe the work proposed in each task in detail. The framework should include, but not be limited to, addressing the following issues:
  • Geographic context (urban, suburban, rural);  
  • Vehicle and fleet management and ownership;
  • Impacts on travelers;
  • Business models and public funding, including fees and subsidies;
  • Data sharing and data usage;
  • Radio spectrum and rights-of-way for accommodating communications;
  • Public rights-of-way, including curbs and access for travelers and freight;
  • Policy and planning implications, especially integration into the existing processes;
  • Issues likely needing state, local, or federal legislative action or multi-jurisdictional involvement;
  • Workforce implications;
  • Infrastructure and operational implications;
  • Safety;
  • Privacy, liability, legal, and security issues;
  • Direct benefits (safety, productivity, economic competiveness, environmental); and
  • Timing for policy changes given uncertainty about technology and market penetration.
At a minimum, deliverables shall include:
  • Interim report,
  • Draft final report,
  • Final report and stand-alone executive summary,
  • A stand-alone technical memorandum titled “The Implementation of Findings and Products”, and 
  • A toolbox to supplement the framework. The toolbox must include a methodology to measure and evaluate the impacts of MOD and ADS on the transportation system, travelers, and agencies. The toolbox should also include (a) sample agreements between public entities and private providers, (b) sample letters of support related to policy change endeavors, and (c) sample legislative policies. While the framework would, at a minimum, need to cover accessibility, efficiency, congestion, the environment, safety, security, equity, data and planning, and funding, the toolbox should include or point to specific evaluation methodologies that can be supplemented over time.


  1. A critical aspect of the NCHRP 20-102 effort is to provide useful information to practitioners as soon as practical. The research plan should highlight interim deliverables that would be suitable for dissemination on the NCHRP project web site following review and approval by the NCHRP.
  2. The research team should possess expertise in public policy and legislation, transportation planning and programming, public transit systems planning and operation, and connected and automated vehicle technologies.
  3. This project is focused on ADS under SAE levels of automation 4 and 5 as described in SAE standard J3016; however, the impacts of other levels of automation may also be considered.
  4. Proposals should include a task-by-task breakdown of labor hours for each staff member as shown in Figure 4 in the brochure, "Information and Instructions for Preparing Proposals" (http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/crp/docs/ProposalPrep.pdf). Proposals also should include a breakdown of all costs (e.g., wages, indirect costs, travel, materials, and total) for each task using Figures 5 and 6 in the brochure. Please note that TRB Cooperative Research Program subawards (selected proposers are considered subawards to the National Academy of Sciences, the parent organization of TRB) must comply with 2 CFR 200 – Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards. These requirements include a provision that proposers without a "federally" Negotiated Indirect Costs Rate Agreement (NICRA) shall be subject to a maximum allowable indirect rate of 10% of Modified Total Direct Costs. Modified Total Direct Costs include all salaries and wages, applicable fringe benefits, materials and supplies, services, travel, and up to the first $25,000 of each lower-tier subaward and subcontract. Modified Total Direct Costs exclude equipment, capital expenditures, charges for patient care, rental costs, tuition remission, scholarships and fellowships, participant support costs and the portion of each lower-tier subaward and subcontract in excess of $25,000. 
  5. The NCHRP is a practical, applied research program that produces implementable products addressing problems faced by transportation practitioners and managers. The benefits of NCHRP research are realized only when the results are implemented in state DOTs and other agencies. Implementation of the research product must be considered throughout the process, from problem statement development to research contract and beyond completion of the research. Item 4(c), "Anticipated Research Results," must include the following: (a) the "product" expected from the research, (b) the audience or "market" for this product, (c) a realistic assessment of impediments to successful implementation, and (d) the institutions and individuals who might take leadership in deploying the research product. The project panel will develop and maintain an implementation plan throughout the life of the project. The research team will be expected to provide input to an implementation team consisting of panel members, AASHTO committee members, the NCHRP Implementation Coordinator, and others in order to meet the goals of NCHRP Active Implementation: Moving Research into Practice, available at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/docs/NCHRP_ActiveImplementation.pdf.
  6. Item 5 in the proposal, "Qualifications of the Research Team," must include a section labeled "Disclosure." Information relevant to the NCHRP's need to ensure objectivity and to be aware of possible sources of significant financial or organizational conflict of interest in conducting the research must be presented in this section of the proposal. For example, under certain conditions, ownership of the proposing agency, other organizational relationships, or proprietary rights and interests could be perceived as jeopardizing an objective approach to the research effort, and proposers are asked to disclose any such circumstances and to explain how they will be accounted for in this study. If there are no issues related to objectivity, this should be stated. 
  7. Proposals are evaluated by the NCHRP staff and project panels consisting of individuals collectively very knowledgeable in the problem area. Selection of an agency is made by the project panel considering the following factors: (1) the proposer's demonstrated understanding of the problem; (2) the merit of the proposed research approach and experiment design; (3) the experience, qualifications, and objectivity of the research team in the same or closely related problem area; (4) the plan for ensuring application of results; (5) the proposer's plan for participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises--small firms owned and controlled by minorities or women; and (6) the adequacy of the facilities.
    Note: The proposer's plan for participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises should be incorporated in Item 12 of the proposal.
  8. Copyrights - All data, written materials, computer software, graphic and photographic images, and other information prepared under the contract and the copyrights therein shall be owned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The contractor and subcontractors will be able to publish this material for non-commercial purposes, for internal use, or to further academic research or studies with permission from TRB Cooperative Research Programs. The contractor and subcontractors will not be allowed to sell the project material without prior approval by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. By signing a contract with the National Academy of Sciences, contractors accept legal responsibility for any copyright infringement that may exist in work done for TRB. Contractors are therefore responsible for obtaining all necessary permissions for use of copyrighted material in TRB's Cooperative Research Programs publications. For guidance on TRB's policies on using copyrighted material please consult Section 5.4, "Use of Copyrighted Material," in the Procedural Manual for Contractors.


  9. Useful resources for this project may include: 

  1. NCHRP 102 series projects, Impacts of Connected Vehicles and Automated Vehicles on State and Local Transportation Agencies http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=3824
  2. TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition  http://www.trb.org/Publications/TCRPReport95.aspx
  3. TCRP Report 136: Guidebook for Rural Demand-Response Transportation: Measuring, Assessing, and Improving Performance  http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/162701.aspx
  4. FHWA Primer on Shared Mobility: Current Practices and Guiding Principles  https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop16022/index.htm
  5. FHWA Primer on Smartphone Applications to Influence Travel Choices: Practices and Policies  https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop16023/index.htm
  6. SAE/TRB Shared and Digital Mobility Committee  https://www.sae.org/works/committeeHome.do?comtID=TEVSDMC
  7. SAE/AASHTO Active Safety Road Markings for Machine Vision Systems Working Group     https://www.sae.org/works/committeeHome.do?comtID=TEVSSRM
  8. Shared Mobility Toolkit  www.SharedUseMobilityCenter.org/tools/  
  9. Berkeley Haas Tech Challenge http://www.haastechchallenge.org/
  10. NCHRP Legal Research Digest 69: A Look at the Legal Environment for Driverless Vehicles  http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/173557.aspx
  11. TCRP Report 188: Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit  http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/174653.aspx


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