The National Academies

NCHRP 20-102(01) [Final]

Policy and Planning Actions to Internalize Societal Impacts of CV and AV Systems into Market Decisions
[ NCHRP 20-102 (Impacts of Connected Vehicles and Automated Vehicles on State and Local Transportation Agencies--Task-Order Support) ]

  Project Data
Funds: $400,000
Research Agency: Texas A&M Transportation Institute
Principal Investigator: Ginger Goodin
Effective Date: 11/3/2015
Completion Date: 5/2/2017

The project is complete and the following are available
  • Strategies to Advance Automated and Connected Vehicles: Briefing Document.This document is intended for state, regional, and local agency and political decision makers who are framing public policy making for these transformational technologies. The briefing document makes the case for taking action in spite of uncertainties and presents 18 policy and planning strategies that may be useful in advancing societal goals.
  • Advancing Automated and Connected Vehicles: Policy and Planning Strategies for State and Local Transportation Agencies [NCHRP Report 845].This report assesses policy and planning strategies at the state, regional, and local levels that could influence private-sector automated vehicle (AV) and connected vehicle (CV) choices to positively affect societal goals. The report aims to assist agencies with exploring actions that might increase the likelihood that AV and CV technologies will have beneficial impacts on traffic crashes, congestion, pollution, land development, and mobility (particularly for older adults, youths under the age of 16, and individuals with disabilities).
  • Transportation TV Special Report. This YouTube video was produced by AASHTO to introduce the Briefing Document and Report.
The objective of this research was to identify and describe policy and planning actions at the state, regional, and local levels that could help societal impacts (including impacts on transportation system owner/operators) of connected vehicle (CV) and automated vehicle (AV) technologies to be internalized in market decisions made by individuals and organizations. The CV and AV technologies should include those being developed for all modes (e.g., cars, trucks, transit, bicycles, and pedestrians) and the interfaces between them.
Task 1—Study Management. The principal investigator will assume responsibility to complete all research activities and submit deliverables on time and within budget, and to provide NCHRP and state and local agencies with the information that is needed for future policy and planning decision making. The co-PI will assist the PI in these activities.
Task 2—Societal Benefits and Private Sector Interests. In this task, the team will identify and describe mismatches between societal impacts and impacts on private-sector interests from implementation of AV and CV technologies, highlighting uncertainties. Deliverable: Tech memo describing societal impacts, interests of key private sector actors, presenting mismatches and uncertainties, also highlight places where interests converge and diverge.
Task 3—Policy and Planning Actions. In this task, the team will identify policy and planning instruments and actions to better align interests of the private sector with broader public interest in achieving societal goals of safety, mobility, and environment (emissions and fuel consumption). Deliverable: Tech memo describing suggested policy and planning categories, and actions comprising them, and providing rationale for their use.
Task 4—Interim Panel Meeting. The meeting will be used to review the work-to-date, refine and approve policy and planning categories and actions to be evaluated in Task 5, and highlight significant developments in private or public sectors that could influence the course of this project. Deliverables: Interim report summarizing findings to date and a PowerPoint presentation covering it. If the NCHRP and panel agree, a white paper documenting key findings will be produced.
Task 5—In-Depth Evaluation of Feasibility, Applicability, and Impacts of Policy and Planning Stategies. In this task, the team will evaluate the most promising policy and planning strategies. The evaluations will focus on the potential effectiveness in increasing the societal benefits of CVs/AVs; political, institutional, and operational viability; applicability to different locations; financial implications; effect of market penetration levels; and ownership. Strategies to be evaluated are:
  • Apply road pricing, including tolling, parking pricing, and emerging applications of distance-based pricing, to minimize vehicle miles traveled (VMT)
  • Accelerate CV market penetration by subsidizing equipped vehicles, both original equipment and after-market retrofit of conventional vehicles
  • Subsidize shared vehicle services to minimize VMT growth and support ridesharing and transit services, including paratransit
  • Create economic incentives such as pre-tax transit benefits and “location efficient mortgages,” to support market penetration of shared AVs near transit nodes, urban centers, and commercial centers 
  • Establish, codify and enforce CV and AV operator/owner/passenger requirements, including training, making installation and use of applications a component of driver training and licensing.
  • Restructure liability regimes, including insurance requirements, to accelerate market penetration
  • Implement land use regulations and parking requirements to increase density in support of market penetration of shared AVs at transit nodes, urban center, and commercial centers
  • Enact legislation to stimulate CV or AV testing 
  • Invest in CV infrastructure in collaboration with the private sector
  • Grant AV- and CV-equipped vehicles; including transit and commercial vehicles, privileged access or services (HOV/managed lanes, campuses, signal priority, parking access)
  • Increase public awareness through education, training, communication, and outreach, to stimulate consumer action and supportive public investment
  • Implement new contractual mechanisms with private service providers, including shared data arrangements
Deliverables: Tech memo summarizing the results of assessments, with individual case studies as appendices. A webinar meeting will also be held with the NCHRP and panel for which a PowerPoint presentation will be prepared. If NCHRP and the panel agree, a white paper documenting key findings will be produced
Task 6—Final Deliverables. In this task, the team will produce the final report, policy briefing document, and PowerPoint presentation that are ready for delivery and use within the practitioner community. A technical memorandum on implementing the research findings and products will also be produced.
Vehicle manufacturers and third-party vendors are continually introducing new automated vehicle (AV) technologies into the marketplace. Connected vehicle (CV) technologies are also moving towards implementation, with NHTSA rule-making being a key driver.
Vehicles that are increasingly automated and connected (to each other and/or to infrastructure) offer many benefits in areas such as safety, mobility, and environment. However, there is a gap between the consumer benefits that motivate vehicle manufacturers and owners and the societal benefits that motivate public agencies. Without action by governments, there is a risk that some of the public benefits from these transformative technologies will not be realized.
In similar situations, state, regional, and local governments have exercised their authority to make policies or plans in order to internalize public benefits in private-sector decisions. Low emission vehicles have been incentivized with access to HOV facilities, for example. Preferential parking now accompanies public parking for electric vehicles.

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