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The National Academies

TCRP J-06 [Active]

Quick Response for Special Needs

  Project Data
Funds: $100,000 (FY '93)
$ 50,000 (FY '94)
$329,139 (FY '95)
$100,000 (FY '96)
$175,000 (FY '97)
$125,000 (FY '98)
$535,887 (FY '99)
$335,000 (FY '00)
$ 75,000 (FY '01)
$200,000 (FY '02)
$150,000 (FY '03)
$500,000 (FY '04)
$150,000 (FY '05)
$300,000 (FY '06)
$150,000 (FY '07)
$75,000 (FY '08)
$250,000 (FY '09)
$205,000 (FY '10)
$250,000 (FY '11)
$50,000 (FY '12)
$100,000 (FY '13)
$100,000 (FY '15)
$50,000 (FY '16)
Staff Responsibility: Gwen Chisholm Smith
Research Agency: Various
Principal Investigator: Various
Effective Date: 1/1/1994

The purpose of this project is to provide a mechanism for responding quickly to research problems that demand immediate attention. The TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee approved a special fund for allocation to special research needs. A TOPS Task Force is responsible for approving tasks initiated under this project.

Status: Eighty-three topics have been authorized: 83 have been completed.


Task 1 New Transit Bus
Consultants Ronald J. Hartman and Rosalyn Simon
Start Date March 1994
Expiration Date August 1995--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

A report was prepared for an ad hoc committee covering (1) short history of Transbus, (2) survey of selected transit operators to obtain their views on compelling issues of the U.S. transit bus market, (3) summary of FTA and DOE work on Advanced Technology Bus, and (4) identification of policy issues for consideration.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 2 Transit Ridership Initiative
Consultant Robert Stanley, Cambridge Systematics
Start Date March 1994
Expiration Date August 1994--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task reported on transit ridership success stories and identified research needs to increase U.S. transit ridership. The results were published as TCRP Research Results Digest 4, which is also available in portable document format (PDF). This digest served as a resource for the workshop held under TCRP Project H-5. Double-click on the file below to access this RRD (552 Kb). (A free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader is available at http://www.adobe.com.)

Status: This task has been completed.

Research Results Digest 4


Task 3 Organizational Research Structure for APTA
Consultant Barbara T. Harder
Start Date February 1994
Expiration Date March 1994--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This study assisted APTA in assessing its own research and development activities, drafting mission statements for APTA research functions, and preparing a committee structure and objectives.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 4 Station Car Demonstration
Consultant Kevin M. Sheys, Esq., Oppenheimer, Wolff & Donnelly
Start Date March 1994
Expiration Date May 1994--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

A draft Memorandum of Understanding was prepared for use by the Transit Development Corporation, the National Station Car Association, and transit systems, outlining the responsibilities associated with the National Station Car Demonstration Project.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 5 Characteristics of State and Local Transit Funding
Consultants Sarah Campbell, TransManagement, Inc., and Robert Stanley, Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
Start Date July 1995
Expiration Date June 1996--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

The objectives of this task were to (1) develop a sample database incorporating the full range of state transit funding data and information from selected states that would satisfy current and continuing needs; (2) develop similar data on local transit funding for a small number of localities; (3) provide a preliminary analysis of state and local transit funding issues and prospects using this database; and (4) outline an implementation plan for continuous collection and analysis of state and local transit funding data nationwide, including preliminary specifications for database design and system applications.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 6 Integrating Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Paratransit Services and Health and Human Services
Transportation
Consultant Rosalyn Simon
Start Date June 1995
Expiration Date December 1996--Completed
Project Manager Stephen J. Andrle

The objective of this task was to develop background material and suggest potential research activities to facilitate the coordination of the Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS), Transportation (DOT), and other federal programs that fund human service transportation. The effort identified resources available to assist public transit operators with the provision of paratransit services as mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. The material developed will assist TCRP in determining if and what additional research may be necessary. In December 1996, the scope was expanded to include (a) an assessment of technologies and vehicles available to address service coordination; and (b) an assessment of the potential impacts of welfare reform on transit.

Status: This task has been completed. TCRP Research Results Digest 10, "Integrating Americans with Disabilities Act Paratransit Services and Health and Human Services Transportation," and TCRP Research Results Digest 23, " Coordinating Public Transportation with Other Federal Programs" are available upon request. TCRP RRDs 10 and 23 are also available in portable document format (PDF). Double-click on the file below to access these RRDs. (A free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader is available at http://www.adobe.com.)

TCRP Research Results Digest 10

TCRP Research Results Digest 23


Task 7 Impact of a Change in the Matching Ratio for Transit
Projects
Consultant Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc.
Start Date August 1995
Expiration Date December 1995--Completed
Project Manager Stephen J. Andrle

The objectives of this task were to (1) identify the impact of a change from 20 percent to 50 percent in the local match required for federally assisted transit projects. In particular, the research assessed what a 150 percent increase in the local match would mean for the planning and programming process at the state, MPO, and local level; (2) address the impact on project selection in the federal transit program, and on use of flexible funds in the Title 23 (Highway and Surface Transportation) Programs; (3) determine the capability of state and local governments to generate the additional local match funding required; (4) assess the resulting change in transit capital investment levels and the impact on the conditions of transit infrastructure; and (5) develop an estimate of resulting changes in transit service and fare levels.

In addition, the research estimated the effects of elimination of federal support for transit planning. How would the elimination of the Transit Planning and Research program affect local governments' abilities to plan for transit facilities in metropolitan areas, and how would it affect the ability of states to consider transit options in state-wide transportation planning? The research estimated the effects on the use of flexible funds for transit projects. How would the loss of support for planning affect the ability of potential transit projects to compete with the backlog of highway projects readied for consideration through the highway planning process?

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 8 Impact of Elimination of Federal Operating Assistance for Transit
Consultant TransManagement, Inc. and Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
Start Date August 1995
Expiration Date November 1995--Completed
Project Manager Stephen J. Andrle

This topic estimated the effects of a phasing out of federal operating assistance for transit. How would the reduction in operating funds affect service, ridership, fares, transit infrastructure, bus purchases, jobs, highway construction, rider safety and security, air quality, and other considerations, for various categories of transit users (including elderly, poor, and people with disabilities) in various population areas, geographical settings, and types of transit agencies. In addition, the research investigated improved methods of budgeting transit expenditures that will enable managers to make the most effective use of limited resources.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 9 The Value of Federal Support for Transit Research
Consultant National Transportation Consortium of Minority Colleges and Universities
Start Date August 1995
Expiration Date November 1995--Completed
Project Manager Stephen J. Andrle

The intent of this task was to demonstrate the need for and the benefits of transit research. The task compared levels of transit research investment in the U.S. with investment in other industries and in other countries. It documented the interest and appropriate role for the federal government in research and development of transit innovation, and showed the investment value of research.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 10 Direct Cost of Drug and Alcohol Testing
Consultant Battelle
Start Date August 1995
Expiration Date December 1995--Completed
Project Manager Stephen J. Andrle

The recently enacted FTA regulations on drug and alcohol testing have had a significant cost impact on transit systems. A study was needed to quantify the costs of compliance. The study coordinated with TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, Topic 3-04, "Impact of FTA and FRA Drug and Alcohol Regulations."

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 11 FCC Proposal to Institute User Fees or to Auction Radio Frequencies
Consultant Arthur D. Little, Inc.
Start Date September 1995
Expiration Date December 1995--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

In June 1995, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) issued a Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (FNPRM) that proposed the possible institution of user fees or the auctioning of radio frequencies to encourage radio spectrum efficiency. The intent of this task was to summarize the FNPRM; identify issues; outline feasible alternatives for APTA response; and, through a transit system survey, assist APTA in developing transit-industry consensus comments to be provided to the FCC. Comments were submitted by APTA to the FCC.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 12 Innovative Technologies Initiative
Consultant Brian McCollom
Start Date March 1996
Expiration Date May 1996--Completed
Project Manager Stephen J. Andrle

The purpose of this task was to convene a committee, representative of small and large transit properties throughout the nation, to launch a networking effort among transit agencies for the purpose of increasing the application of innovative technologies to all aspects of day-to-day transit operations and to ensure maximum, industry-wide information sharing. The participating properties would collectively serve as test beds for innovative technologies demonstration projects.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 13 Commuter Rail System Management Contracts to Minimize Cost and Maximize Productivity
Consultant John Cline, Jocelyn Waite and Kent Woodman
Start Date March 1996
Expiration Date September 1997--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

Although commuter railroads are one of the oldest forms of transit from suburbs into central business districts, only in recent years has this technology enjoyed widespread attention as a mode suitable for modern American cities. Because the mode uses existing railroad rights-of-way, the bulk of the cost for new infrastructure and associated land acquisition is avoided. The lines suitable for commuter rail service, while used to carry freight trains, generally have spare capacity so that additional service can be provided without major operational changes. On the other hand, the necessity to operate jointly with freight trains requires special attention to rolling stock designed to meet FRA and AAR design standards. Further, since ownership of the rail line sometimes remains with the freight railroad, there are often additional issues of maintenance, cost-sharing, liability and labor jurisdiction that arise.

For many reasons, transit agencies often prefer to contract out the actual operation of the commuter railroad portion of their system. Historically, these contracts have been with the railroad that owns the track over which the service operates. Recently, however, there have been cases where an operating contract is negotiated with an entity that does not own trackage and does not operate freight service.

With the increase in new commuter railroad operations over the past decade, and the proliferation of proposals to provide such service in many additional cities, the terms and conditions contained in an operating contract are of broad interest and applicability. Further, there is no "standard" set of clauses for such contracts. This has had cost implications to the transit agencies, and these cost impacts have varied considerably, often depending on the skills and craftiness of the negotiators.

The result is a diverse set of operating contracts, with very little similarity of language. The impact of the contract provisions on cost can cause wide variation in the effectiveness and efficiency with which the service is provided. Finally, issues of liability and service standard adherence are dealt with in widely disparate fashion among various contracts.

This project was designed to develop bidding and contractual strategies for procuring contractual services from various entities, including freight railroad companies. It includes relevant case studies.

Specific objectives of the project were (1) to develop bidding and contractual strategies for all functions associated with procuring commuter rail services to maximize productivity and control costs, and (2) to provide existing commuter rail systems with information on the state of the practice in contract renewal negotiations and provide new-start transit agencies with a framework for development to minimize cost and maximize productivity.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 14 Development of a Transit Bus Research Agenda
Consultant John J. Schiavone
Start Date February 1996
Expiration Date June 1996--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

The objective of this effort was to prepare a comprehensive, prioritized, research agenda for issues relating to transit bus design and equipment. This research agenda served as input for the TOPS Committee in allocating TCRP funds for projects in this area at their June 1996 meeting.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 15 The Useful Life of a Heavy-Duty Transit Bus
Consultant Edward Abrams, Abrams-Cherwony & Associates
Henry Hide, TMG International
Start Date December 1996
Expiration Date December 1997--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) provides funding under Sections 3 and 9 for the purchase of 35-, 40-, and 60-ft heavy-duty transit buses. In the interest of ensuring that minimum vehicle life values represent the best use of federal funds, FTA provides guidelines requiring transit agencies to have a minimum useful life of 12 years or 500,000 miles of operation for heavy-duty buses.

At an FTA-sponsored "Bus Industry Summit" held in September 1995, participants indicated the need to take a fresh look at the current useful life standard and its underlying assumptions, and recommend changes that may be appropriate in today's operating environment. Geographic location, service environment, and the introduction of new technologies all impact the useful life of a transit bus. These factors, among others, must be considered when determining useful life requirements. At the summit, it was indicated that there may be an optimum period other than the existing 12-year useful life requirement for heavy-duty transit buses and that flexibility in bus useful life may be needed to reflect differing operating environments. It was also indicated that perhaps useful life should be based on other factors (e.g., costs) rather than the 12-year time frame. Transit agencies stated that it would likely be more cost-effective to replace buses earlier because of high maintenance costs during the latter part of the 12-year useful life period. In addition, bus manufacturers stated that a shorter useful life would likely result in a healthier bus manufacturing industy.

The purpose of this task was to review relevant data in order to make recommendations on the appropriateness of the current useful life standard for heavy-duty transit buses. The FTA definition of a heavy-duty transit bus was used as the basis for buses included in this task. The effort included an analysis of factors that impact vehicle life, including, but not limited to the following: operating environment (e.g., climate, terrain, annual bus mileage, average operating speed, urban/suburban/rural); requirments mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), and others; and the introduction of new technologies (e.g., alternative fuels, advanced electronics).

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 16 Development of a Human Resources Research Agenda
Consultant Gayland Moffat
Start Date June 1996
Expiration Date June 1997--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

Human resources are vital to the transit industry. Recognizing this, two of TCRP's Strategic Priorities for 1996 and 1997 relate to human resources: Improve Transit Productivity and Streamline Transit Organizations. In addition, TCRP made a special call for 1997 research problem statements in the human resources field. Human Resources involves the management of people in a transit agency and covers the following problem areas: recruitment, training, employee reviews, job classification, salary administration, labor relations, and performance-improvement programs.

In recent years, managers throughout American industry have begun to recognize that cost control is not sufficient to improve performance and that the work environment affects employee performance. Problem areas range from hiring and training practices to management and organization of work activities. Most observers believe that transit performance will improve only if productivity increases and people work smarter. Employee compensation and benefits are the largest component of operating expenses. Transit managers must control these expenditures to ensure that costs do not increase unreasonably and that productivity does not decline.

Transit managers need the knowledge and skills necessary to reinvent their human resource systems for recruiting, selecting, training, organizing, tasking, evaluating, motivating, compensating, and rewarding their employees. There is a need for a research agenda of critical topics in human resources that identified gaps in knowledge and proposed research to fill the gaps.

The objective of this quick response study was to identify human resources research topics and to develop research problem statements for each.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 17 Available Geographic Information System (GIS) Technology and Potential Transit Applications
Consultant Lawrence Harman, Bridgewater State College
Start Date August 1996
Expiration Date Task Cancelled
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

The Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Transit GIS is the first comprehensive GIS database of public transportation in the U.S. The FTA fixed-route bus database will include every fixed-route bus service in the United States as a GIS route system using commercially available, off-the-shelf, GIS software. Phase I of the FTA project, completing route systems for all transit agencies without GIS, was completed in spring 1995 at the Moakley Center for Technological Applications at Bridgewater State College. Phase II, compiling level-of-service databases for GIS route systems, was underway in summer 1996 at the Moakley Center. A GIS area database of transit agency (TA) jurisdictions is also under development. All databases will be available over the Internet at the project's web site at the Moakley Center without charge.

This task was to provide the transit industry with the necessary information on the FTA project to understand (1) GIS and its application to the transit industry, and (2) the FTA Bus Route GIS Database Project and how to access the products from the project.

Status: This task was cancelled by the requesting agency. Similar work was conducted through other means.


Task 18 Characteristics and Functions of State Transit Associations
Consultant Katherine Hooper
Start Date August 1996
Expiration Date February 1998--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

In light of federal budget constraints impacting support of public transit, state and local governments will need to play a larger role in funding public transit systems. State transit associations can play a vital role in educating public officials on the importance of public transit. The role and functions of state transit associations, however, are not widely understood among those who would most benefit, including peers from other state associations.

The purpose of this task was to update currently available information on state transit associations nationwide. Information was collected on how these organizations operate, how they are staffed and managed, and how they conduct their business (roles played in lobbying, funding, training, etc.). This task also identifies exemplary practices that can be replicated in other areas.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 19 Continuing Examination of Successful Transit Ridership Initiatives
Consultant Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
Start Date April 1997
Expiration Date February 1998--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

A previously completed TCRP project (Project J-6, Task 2, Transit Ridership Initiative) examined the actions that had yielded the largest increases in transit ridership over the 1991-93 period. Data from more than 40 transit systems were reviewed and interviews were held with planning, marketing, and management staff at the systems to summarize actions taken and their impact on transit ridership. The final report from this effort, published as TCRP Research Results Digest 4, February 1995, served as the baseline document for a TCRP-sponsored conference held to identify additional research projects that could assist directly in efforts to increase transit ridership.

Interest in gathering new and more detailed information about initiatives that increase ridership remains high in the transit community, as well as within TCRP and FTA. Each of the 40 systems contacted in the initial phase of the Transit Ridership Initiative project had achieved noteworthy success in increasing transit ridership in the short term as a result of varying actions, initiatives, and circumstances. In the intervening 2 years, it is likely that many of these successes have been expanded upon, while in some cases increases initially reported on may not have been sustained. It is also likely that transit systems other than the initial 40 have undertaken initiatives in the last 2 to 3 years that have produced equally significant ridership increases. All these circumstances should be explored and summarized on a regular basis. In addition, there is a need to consider what improvements, if any, should be made in how this information is compiled, summarized, and made available to varying audiences to increase its use and application in launching new initiatives, policies, and programs designed to increase transit ridership.

This second, or follow-on, phase of the initial Transit Ridership Initiative focused on the following activities: (1) a reassessment and summary of the latest experiences of the 40 systems included in the original effort, focusing on those that have continued to experience increases in ridership, those whose initial ridership increases have levelled off or been reversed, and the factors that have contributed to these trends; (2) an examination of ridership success stories that have emerged at other transit systems since the initial effort that summarizes the individual circumstances and analyzes their common or unique aspects; and (3) a review of the dissemination process for ridership initiative information with recommendations for potential enhancement.

Status: This task has been completed. The results have been published as TCRP Research Results Digest 29, which is available in portable document format (PDF). Double-click on the file below to access the RRD. (A free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader is available at http://www.adobe.com.)

TCRP Research Results Digest 29


Task 20 Feasibility of an Orientation Course for New Members of Transit Agency Boards of Directors
Consultant Deborah Price
Start Date September 1997
Expiration Date Task Cancelled
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

Transit agency boards of directors are responsible for providing policy direction to their organizations. Typically, transit board members are drawn from the ranks of private business, the professions, and community leaders. In many cases, new transit board members may not have direct experience in the transit industry, and they must learn the transit business on the job.

Transit boards experience member turnover on a regular basis, so there is a continuing need to familiarize new board members with the transit industry. As such, an orientation course might be appropriate to assist new transit board members in becoming more familiar with the business of operating a transit system and the internal and external factors that affect a transit organization. This orientation could include elements such as the role of transit in the community; major issues facing the transit industry; structures of typical transit organizations; transit financing/funding; operations; the regulatory environment; key organizations serving the industry; technical resources available; and others. Where possible, instruction might be given by transit general managers, members of boards of private corporations, management specialists, or experienced transit board members, who could also offer their personal experiences in these areas.

This task was to perform a feasibility analysis to (1) determine interest and potential demand for an orientation course for new transit board members, (2) analyze options for the administration/organization of such a course, and (3) recommend a detailed implementation plan for a preferred option, including an outline of a curriculum for the course.

Status: This task has been cancelled.


Task 21 New Paradigms Research and Strategic Plan Update
Consultant Various
Start Date September 1997
Expiration June 2007 - Completed
Project Manager Dianne S. Schwager

A number of TCRP activities were undertaken under this task.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 22 Market Research on Current National Public Attitudes Toward Public Transportation
Consultant Fleishman-Hillard Research
Start Date October 1997
Expiration Date March 1998--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

It is important to measure and define current public opinions, attitudes, and perceptions toward public transportation to learn what the public thinks about public transportation and what it believes public transportation priorities should be. Only when current public attitudes are understood can transit managers develop effective strategies for delivering customer-oriented service.

The objective of this project was to design, conduct, analyze, and report the results of a market research survey on public opinions, attitudes, and perceptions towards public transportation in the United States. The purpose of this "benchmark" national survey was to (1) identify current opinions, attitudes, and perceptions, (2) reveal what transit priorities the public believes should be pursued, and (3) establish a benchmark for comparison of such opinions, attitudes, and perceptions over time.

Using statistically valid methods to select and question survey participants through 8- to 10-minute telephone interviews, information representative of the national general population was collected. The information collected can be used to understand current public opinions, attitudes, and perceptions of public transportation, and how programs can be better tailored to meet the needs and expectations of the riding and non-riding public.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 23 Survey of Current Practice and Potential Improvements in Screening of Transit Personnel Placement in Customer-Sensitive Positions
Consultant Dr. Rosalyn Simon
Start Date February 2000
Expiration Date May 2001--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

Large numbers of transit personnel perform work that places them in daily close contact with the travelling public and requires oral exchanges with passengers and the handling of funds for ticket purchases. These contacts can easily evolve into problems when there are misunderstandings about fares, schedules, or passenger misconduct aboard transit vehicles. The ability to resolve these problems in a calm, direct and unemotional manner should be an essential characteristic of the personality of the employee.

All too often, the selection process for new employees in this category overly focuses on the technical competence of the individuals and omits a concentration on those facets of their personality that would bear on their ability to interact positively with the passengers. An appropriate universal testing device needs to be developed, to be used in the screening of applicants for customer-sensitive positions. Such a device would be a reliable predictor of an employee who would consistently project a favorable image of the transit organization and who would be capable of dealing with the most difficult passenger confrontation situation without rancor, and in a calm, subdued, but firm fashion.

The objectives of this task were to: (1) conduct a national survey of current practices related to the use of commercial testing or screening devices; and (2) develop potential improvements to the screening of transit personnel recruited for customer-service positions.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 24 Combating Global Warming Through Sustainable Surface Transportation Policy: A Research Scoping Study
Consultant Elizabeth Deakin
Start Date April 1998
Expiration Date October 1998--Completed
Project Manager Stephen Andrle

Emissions from surface transportation contribute to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, but there is disagreement in the scientific community about the seriousness of the problem and uncertainty in the transportation community about policies that should be followed to reduce surface transportation emissions. TRB Special Report 251, Toward a Sustainable Future, Addressing the Long-Term Effects of Motor Vehicle Transportation on Climate and Ecology, lays out many of the issues, but does not describe a mitigation action plan. The participants in the recent Kyoto Conference went a step further and established a goal to reduce the level of greenhouse gas emissions to 7% below the level of 1990. The TCRP is interested in conducting a study that would address what must be done in the surface transportation sector in the United States to contribute a "fair share" toward achieving the Kyoto goal. The concept of "fair share" means that the surface transportation sector should reduce emissions in proportion to its contribution to current greenhouse gas emissions.

The objective of this scoping study was to describe how the TCRP can make a credible contribution to the body of research on how to reduce the contribution of surface transportation to greenhouse gas emissions. The scoping study summarized the major work that has been done on greenhouse gas emissions and prepared a study design for future research that could be conducted by the Transit Cooperative Research Program. The study design addressed mitigating actions that can be taken in the surface transportation sector in the United States to meet the Kyoto goal. While the problem of greenhouse gas emissions is global, this study focused on the United States. The scoping study did not attempt to resolve the scientific controversies regarding greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, but took the Kyoto resolution as a given. The primary audience for this scoping study is the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee, which will decide whether or not to conduct the recommended study design.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 25 APTA/FTA Bus Technology Symposium: Research Agenda for TCRP
Consultant N/A
Start Date November 1997
Expiration Date November 1997--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

The Federal Transit Administration and the American Public Transit Association jointly sponsored a Bus Technology Symposium in November 1997. The symposium was designed to be a primary input to the development of a long range plan for the bus industry for research and technology development.

TCRP had interests in the Bus Symposium for the purpose of participating in the development of a national bus technology agenda and the identification of an appropriate role for TCRP in the national agenda. In order to ensure that TCRP was properly represented at the symposium, a panel of bus operations professionals with experience in TCRP was convened in conjunction with the symposium.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 26 Identification of Research Needs for Rural and Small Transit Agencies
Consultant N/A
Start Date June 1999
Expiration Date June 1999--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task developed several TCRP problem statements for funding consideration.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 27 Organizational Support for APTA/FTA Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) International Exchange Program Workshops
Consultant George Wynne
Start Date September 1998
Expiration Date June 1999--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task provided assistance to APTA, in close cooperation with the FTA, in organizing three workshops held as part of an APTA/FTA Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) International Exchange Program for transit systems.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 28 Characteristics of State Funding for Public Transportation
Consultant Robert Stanley, Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
Start Date March 1999
Expiration Date April 2000--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

As a follow-up to TCRP Project J-6/Task 5 (completed in 1996), this task examined the characteristics of transit funding programs in 24 selected states. Information collected included funding sources (e.g., state sales tax, gasoline tax); programs being funded; annual amount of funding; and the eligible uses and allocation of the funds. States examined included: California, Florida, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Washington, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Wisconsin.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 29 Options for Financing Public Transportation Capital Projects
Consultant Hagler Bailly, Inc.
Start Date October 1999
Expiration Date October 2002--Completed
Project Manager Dianne Schwager

Enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) in June 1998 created important opportunities for improving public transportation services and infrastructure throughout the United States during the next 5 years. This legislation guarantees higher levels of funding than ever. In addition, new provisions included in the legislation broaden the financing options for transportation programs, including public transportation. The legislation was timely, because many public transportation assets are in need of replacement, and many communities are planning improvements to relieve congestion and to meet their increased transportation needs.

Historically, most public transportation managers and board members have been reluctant to consider funding alternatives beyond their current revenues and grants. This reluctance often reflects the culture of transit systems, which typically have an operating and construction orientation rather than a financial strategy orientation. In addition, local officials are often risk averse and oppose public financial transactions.

Public finance is complex. Because state and local laws and policies vary and because communities have different funding bases and outlooks, not all financing options are appropriate in every circumstance. Many transit system managers and policy board members are simply unaware of some financing options. They could benefit from a greater understanding of how to finance transit capital assets. For example, there is a tendency to believe that "one size fits all," while, in fact, different assets (such as a garage vs. rolling stock) can and should be financed differently. There is a lack of knowledge, and, there are many misconceptions about federal regulations related to financing that often result in foregone opportunities.

The results of this study: (1) inform public transportation managers and public officials about the range of available financing options that can enable them to meet their local public transportation capital needs; and (2) help transit managers and local decision makers to decide whether to finance and which techniques to use.

The objective of this project was to prepare a primer for use by public transportation systems and state and local public officials to identify and evaluate options for financing public transportation capital projects from current and future revenues. This study was not intended to describe, in detail, the complex nature of transactions among the many participants in innovative financial transactions (e.g., certificates of participation and cross border leases). Instead, the product of this study compares the relative advantages and disadvantages of financing options, from the perspective of the public agency taking on the debt, with respect to interest rates, term, principal and interest payments, net cost of the transaction, restrictions, and other considerations.

Status: This task has been completed. The report has been published as TCRP Report 89. This report is also available in portable document format (PDF). Click on the link below to access the report. (A free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader is available at http://www.adobe.com.)

TCRP Report 89


Task 30 Data Collection on Pupil Safety on Transit Bus Systems
Consultant University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
Start Date October 1999
Expiration Date December 2000--Completed
Project Manager Stephan A. Parker

In Safety Recommendation H-97-29, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) asks the U.S. Department of Transportation to collect accident data, including pedestrian accident data, involving school children riding on transit buses. The Safety Recommendation specifically names the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the Community Transportation Association of America, the National Association of State Directors of Pupil Transportation Services, and the American Public Transit Association. The Safety Recommendation was made because current data are not adequate to analyze the relative operational safety of pupils transported on school buses, transit buses, and vans. Further, The NTSB is concerned about whether school children on public transit buses are afforded operational safety equivalent to school children riding on school buses, and the NTSB has asked the parties to determine the most appropriate means to ensure such safety. This project will encompass only the data-related elements of the NTSB recommendation; the parties can use the results to independently or collaboratively address further appropriate action.

There are three national sources of fatality and injury data on buses: the National Transit Data Base, maintained by the FTA; the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS), maintained by the National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA); and The National Automotive Sampling System/General Estimate System (NASS/GES), also maintained by NHTSA. As the NTSB has noted, none of these accident-reporting systems fully capture pupil transportation accident data.

Three categories of accident-related injuries are reported by bus transit systems to the FTA's National Transit Data Base: patron, employees, and other. Specific data on injuries to school children are not delineated.

FARS compiles data on all fatal accidents based on police accident reports and provides very good data on yellow school bus accidents, because all fatalities in the area surrounding a yellow school bus must be reported. However, for pupil fatalities involving transit buses, the data are not so thorough. For instance, FARS contains striking-vehicle data for pedestrian fatalities, but does not necessarily link pedestrian fatalities occurring near a vehicle to that vehicle. A pupil fatality that occurred crossing the street after leaving a transit bus or van would not necessarily reference the transit vehicle, so it would not be classified as transit related. Also, FARS data do not indicate whether the operator of a vehicle is a private individual or an agency like a transit agency. This creates difficulty identifying pupil fatalities involving vans that may be operating in transit or paratransit service.

Fewer data are available on injuries than on fatalities. The NASS/GES contains injury data collected by a sampling process. Because the incidence of pupil-related injuries on yellow school buses, transit buses, or vans is low in the total accident population, this data source is unlikely to provide reliable data on pupil injuries. Other state and local data sources may exist, but they are not readily available for a national analysis.

Finally, exposure data are available, but these data are not linked to the accident data. There is a need to assemble exposure data, relate them to accident data, and report pupil fatality and injury rates while traveling on, boarding, alighting, or walking near transit buses, school buses, and vans.

The objectives of this project were to: (1) assess the adequacy of existing data to address the safety of pupils traveling on, boarding, alighting, or walking near transit buses, school buses, and vans; (2) develop methods to collect meaningful and practical fatality, injury, and exposure data for the conditions described in Objective (1); and (3) develop best available estimates of exposure, fatalities, and injuries for pupils being transported on buses to school, from school, or on school-related trips during normal school hours.

Status: This task has been completed.



Task 31 Transportation and Livable Communities Summary Booklet
Consultant Stephen Davies, Project for Public Spaces, Inc.
Start Date April 1999
Expiration Date July 1999--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task developed a case study booklet of transportation partnerships that were formed to implement livable communities initiatives. The booklet describes how all partners--traffic engineers, downtown organizations, businesses, city government, and transit officials--worked together to address community livability concerns. The case studies were selected from those identified and discussed in several previously completed TCRP projects dealing with livable communities. The booklet is to be distributed at major conferences of organizations such as APTA, ITE, AASHTO, the International Downtown Association, the National Association of Homebuilders, the Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations, the American Public Works Association, and others.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 32 Evaluation of the National Transit Database-TRB Committee
Consultant Thomas Hillegrass
Start Date January 2000
Expiration Date May 2001--Completed
Project Manager Dianne Schwager

A formal TRB study committee has been formed to review products developed as part of the evaluation of the National Transit Database (NTD) that is being administered by the FTA. The committee issued 2 letter reports during the course of the NTD evaluation process.

Status: This task was renamed as Project H-22A. The task has been completed.


Task 33 Cost of Meeting Accessibility Requirements for Over-the-Road Buses
Consultant KFH Group, Inc.
Start Date January 2000
Expiration Date April 2000--Completed
Project Manager Monica Francois

Regulations promulgated by the Department of Transportation implementing provisions of the ADA require that, over time, all OTRBs operated by private for-profit providers be equipped with wheelchair lifts. Private operators use such buses primarily for intercity service, charter service, and tour service. Section 3038 of TEA-21 authorizes a "Rural Transportation Accessibility Incentive Program," which makes funds available to private operators of OTRBs, to finance the incremental capital and training costs of complying with the DOT's OTRB Accessibility Final Rule, "Transportation for Individuals with Disabilities" (49 CFR Part 37), published in a Federal Register notice September 24, 1998. That rule contains various deadlines for the phase-in of accessible bus service by OTRB operators. Requirements are established for new bus equipment, and procedural requirements are set for providing service and employees training. There is a need for information on the financial cost of these requirements, as compared with the level of resources currently available.

In this task, the research team developed an estimate of the number of privately operated OTRBs and conducted a survey of regular-route OTRB operators to obtain information on existing OTRB fleets, current fleet accessibility, vehicle replacement plans, and training needs. The report presents a range of compliance costs for operators providing regular fixed-route service and for operators providing demand-response service. Also presented are analyses testing the sensitivity of various cost components. Amortization summaries for purchases of accessibility equipment that may be financed are included as well. It is unclear what effect accessibility requirements will have on revenue-related issues in the OTRB industry and what role revenue-related issues will have in overall compliance costs. To improve the body of understanding regarding these revenue-related issues, this report includes a review of previous cost analyses and previous estimates of newly generated ridership, loss of seating and package capacity, and possible fare increases or service discontinuation in rural areas.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 34 Documentation of Independent Technical Study Tour Featuring German Shared Track Experience
Consultant David Phraner, Edwards & Kelcey, Inc.
Start Date June 2000
Expiration Date August 2000--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task documented the results of an independent technical tour that reviewed track sharing in several German cities.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 35 GIS Forum
Consultant Planners Collaborative
Start Date September 2000
Expiration Date September 2000--Completed
Project Manager Stephan A. Parker

This task provided support services for an FTA-sponsored, invitation-only, GIS Workshop. A report providing the results of the workshop was prepared.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 36 Analyses for TEA-21 Reauthorization Activities
Consultant Robert Stanley, Cambridge Systematics
Start Date December 2000
Expiration Date September 2001--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task provided analyses to be used in TEA-21 reauthorization activities. Initial activities included the scoping of a comprehensive process to serve reauthorization bottom-line report needs; development of a mid-course stewardship report for TEA-21; and a review of the USDOT's Condition and Performance Report.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 37 Procurement Issues in the Public Transportation Industry: An Assessment of Perceptions and Concerns
Consultant Scott Baker, AECOM Consulting Transportation Group
Start Date January 2001
Expiration Date March 2001--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task summarized procurement issues that transit industry leaders feel need to be addressed; assessed the industry's ability to successfully address those issues; and prioritized the issues for consideration in an industry-wide effort to improve the way it procures goods and services.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 38 Identification of the Critical Workforce Development Issues in the Transit Industry
Consultant Brian Vogel, Quatt Associates
Start Date March 2001
Expiration Date September 2001--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task prepared a report that clarifies and summarizes the major workforce development issues facing the transit industry, and prioritizes those issues so that the industry can develop an action plan to address the concerns.

Status: This task has been completed. This work was combined with Project J-6/Task 40.

The results from this task are summarized in TCRP Research Results Digest 45.

Task 39 Supplemental Analysis of National Survey on Contracting Transit Services
Consultant Dan Boyle
Start Date May 2001
Expiration Date November 2001--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task provided a supplemental analysis of data collected from a national survey of transit systems concerning the contracting of services. The survey was conducted as part of a Congressionally mandated study on the subject that was completed as a formal TRB policy study.

Status: This task has been completed. The results have been published as TCRP Research Results Digest 46.

Task 40 Identification of Practices, Techniques and Strategies for Attracting and Retaining Employees in the Transit Industry
Consultant Brian Vogel, Quatt Associates
Start Date June 2001
Expiration Date September 2001--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task prepared a report that identifies and documents current practices, techniques and strategies for attracting and retaining employees in the transit industry.

Status: This task has ben completed. This work was combined with Project J-6/Task 38.

The results from this task are summarized in TCRP Research Results Digest 45.

Task 41 Transit Research and Reauthorization
Consultant Robert Stanley, Cambridge Systematics
Start Date October 2001
Expiration Date May 2002--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task prepared a report that provides information that will help APTA's Transit Development Corporation develop a research position for the reauthorization of TEA-21.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 42 Developing a Recommended Standard for Automated Fare Collection for Transit: Scoping Study--Regional Fare Management Programs
Consultant Richard Lobron
Start Date May 2002
Expiration Date November 2002 -- Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

Standardized automated fare collection is particularly well suited to locales where transit patrons rely on multiple neighboring carriers to journey within the region for work or pleasure. Formation of regional automated fare collection approaches involving multiple agencies, coordinated in terms of policy, technology and strategy, can offer a new approach for providing movement services to the population of the entire region. Operation of Regional Fare Management Programs involving multiple carriers not only improves the ease of travel for patrons, but also provides a broader base of financial and operational support for high-cost automation efforts. Such operating environments will clearly benefit from standardization of automated fare systems.

In light of this prospective outlet for standardized automated fare collection processes being considered by this project, a Scoping Study was devised to assess how best to apply automated fare collection in multi-agency situations. The Scoping Study was tasked with identifying a representative sampling of existing Regional Fare Management Programs, reviewing the structural construction of such existing regional efforts and providing a "Straw System" outline of tasks necessary to establish such arrangements effectively.

The goal of this Scoping Study was analysis of cooperative efforts that have resulted in multi-agency fare systems. For this purpose, a Regional Fare Management Program is defined as a system that allows multiple, unaffiliated agencies within a geographic zone to provide patrons with a consistent policy of transit fares and instruments to board vehicles operated by various carriers. A Regional Fare Management Program in this context does not include intra-agency fare programs and instruments that are operated by separate divisions of a regional transportation agency, instances in which cooperative policy, investment and operating circumstances exist within the entity's governance structure.

This scoping study was tasked with reviewing the features, processes and issues affecting Regional Fare Management Programs existing worldwide. The intended product of the study was a synopsis of key issues impacting the formation and implementation of such Programs, successfully and unsuccessfully.

Status: This task has been completed. The results were published as TCRP Research Results Digest 57.

Task 43 Expanded State and National Investment Analysis Capability
Consultant Arlee Reno, Cambridge Systematics
Start Date January 2002
Expiration Date June 2002--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task conducted independent national transit infrastructure investment analyses to assure that national transit resource needs are appropriately addressed; and that state and national perspectives on national transit investment requirements are effectively identified and represented for TEA-21 reauthorization.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 44 Identification of Competitive Contracting Success Stories and Development of Management Guidelines
Consultant
Start Date Task Cancelled
Expiration Date
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task will identify competitive contracting success stories in the public transportation industry, identify the elements that make these projects successful, and develop guidelines for public transportation managers that are considering the applicability and advisability of competitive contracting for their system and community.

Status: This task has been cancelled at the request of the submitter, APTA.

Task 45 Advanced Transportation Technology Workshop
Consultant BCAE Consultants
Start Date August 2002
Expiration Date December 2002 -- Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

This task conducted a workshop of noted individuals in a number of technological disciplines to assist professionals in the transportation industry in looking at what and how new advanced technologies might help local communities reduce or manage the problems related to traffic congestion. The primary output of the workshop was a ten to twenty year vision statement template as well as a complete report of the workshop proceedings.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 46 Characteristics of State Funding for Public Transportation - 2002
Consultant Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
Start Date September 2002
Expiration Date May 2003--Completed.
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task prepared a report summarizing the characteristics of state funding for public transportation for most states. For each state, information is provided on overall program structure, amount of state funds provided, sources of state funds, types of investment and eligible uses supported, and state funding allocation mechanisms.

Status: This task has been completed. The final report was published as
TCRP Research Results Digest 60.

Task 47 Case Studies in Environmental Justice
Consultant National Center for Transit Research, University of South Florida
Start Date June 2003
Expiration Date December 2005--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

This task prepared environmental justice case studies in the transit industry.

Status: This task has been completed. The results are available through the University of South Florida.

Task 48 Transit Industry Interface with International Standards
Consultant Thomas McGean, PE
Start Date October 2003
Expiration Date May 2004--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task identifies U.S. coordination needs associated with the development of international transit standards.

Status: This task has been completed.



Task 49 Feasibility and Issues Associated With the Concept of Environmental Transfer Credits With a Public Transportation Focus
Consultant Environmental Financial Products
Start Date November 2003
Expiration Date April 2004--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

This task investigated the feasibility and issues associated with the concept of environmental transfer credits with a public transportation focus as a potential means of generating additional revenue for the transit industry. The task also attempted to estimate the potential value of such credits to the transit industry.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 50 Light Rail Vehicle Crashworthiness Standards
Consultant Aaron James, Jas-TEC
Start Date August 2003
Expiration Date December 2004--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task provided information to assist the ASME Rail Transit Standards Committee in developing a plan for research needed to develop a light-rail crashworthiness standard.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 51 Update of Examination of Successful Transit Ridership Initiatives
Consultant Robert Stanley, Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
Start Date November 2003
Expiration Date December 2004--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

This task surveyed transit systems to examine initiatives that are being implemented to increase transit ridership. This task builds on previous tasks, the results of which were published as TCRP Research Results Digest 4: Transit Ridership Initiative and TCRP Research Results Digest 29: Continuing Examination of Sucessful Transit Ridership Initiatives.

Status: This task has been completed. The final report has been published as
TCRP Research Results Digest 69.

Task 52 Economic Perspective on the Value of Public Transportation
Consultant HLB Decision Economics, Inc.
Start Date November 2003
Expiration Date November 2004--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

This task prepared a comparison of the economic benefits of public transportation with its economic cost.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 53 Hudson Insitute Transportation Vision 2010 and Beyond Project
Consultant Hudson Institute, Jeffrey Parker
Start Date December 2003
Expiration Date June 2004--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task provided research assistance regarding the public transportation portion of the Hudson Institute's Transportation Vision 2010 Project.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 54 Develop a Curriculum for Leadership Development Workshop for Upper Level Managers Serving in Public- and Private-Sector Organizations in the Transit Industry
Consultant Eno Transportation Foundation
Start Date February 2004
Expiration Date April 2005--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

This task developed an executive management training curriculum.

Status: This task has been completed. The Eno Transportation Foundation is now offering the workshop on a periodic basis.

Task 55 Support for the Preparation of "Commuting in America"
Consultant MacroSys
Start Date January 2004
Expiration Date August 2005--Completed
Project Manager Christopher W. Jenks

This task provided technical assistance to support the development of the third edition of "Commuting in America".

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 56 Excess Liability Insurance--Developing Alternatives for Public Transit Agencies
Consultant
Start Date
Expiration Date Task Cancelled
Project Manager

This task would have evaluated various alternatives for excess liability insurance for transit agencies.

Status: A similar project was completed and published as NCHRP Research Results Digest 295, Availability and Accessibility of Liability and Excess Insurance for Public Transit and Private Coach Operators. As such, this task was cancelled.

Task 57 The Business Case for Transit Standards
Consultant AECOM Consult
Start Date March 2004
Expiration Date October 2004--Completed
Project Manager Chritopher W. Jenks

This task provided an analysis of the economic benefit of initiating an industry-wide transit standards development organization and program.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 58 Warehouse, Fulfillment, Dissemination--Developing and Implementing Solutions for Transit Research Materials
Consultant Bain and Associates
Start Date January 2005
Expiration Date June 2005--Completed
Project Manager Chritopher W. Jenks

This task evaluated options (e.g., print-on-demand) for the storage and fulfillment of TCRP and other related research materials.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 59 Benchmarking Diversity in the Transportation Industry: A Scoping Study
Consultant University of Minnesota
Start Date July 2005
Expiration Date October 2006--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

This task assessed existing data sources concerning diversity in the transportation industry, particularly in the highway and transit sectors; identified new data collection needs; and developed a phased approach and comprehensive plan (including budget estimates) for a subsequent study in this subject area.

Status: The final report was published as TCRP Report 120.

Task 60 The Case for Searches in Public Transportation
Consultant Jocelyn Waite, Waite & Associates
Start Date August 2004
Expiration Date August 2005--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

This task will identify and document legal authority (state and Federal) of transit agencies to conduct searches (both random and targeted) of persons and personal property on transit vehicles and transit property. The task will explore issues such as thresholds for conducting random and targeted searches (and how they vary); how racial profiling rulings affect search authority; differences, if any, between searching people and personal property; and differences, if any, between searches on vehicles and on transit property.

Status: This task has been completed. The final report has been published as TCRP Legal Research Digest 22.


Task 61 Support for Transit Industry Participation in the 2004 ITS World Congress
Consultant
Start Date Task Cancelled
Expiration Date
Project Manager Christopher Jenks

This task was to provide support for transit industry participation in the 2004 ITS World Congress.

Status: This task was cancelled by APTA, the requesting agency.

Task 62 Field Door Survey Project
Consultant Transportation System Design, Inc.
Start Date December 2004
Expiration Date November 2005--Completed
Project Manager Dianne Schwager

This task provided support for the APTA Rolling Stock Technical Forum railcar door problem survey and analysis.

Status: This task has been completed. The results have been as TCRP Research Results Digest 74 and TCRP Web-Only Document 28.

Task 63 Support for TRB "Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Transportation" Study
Consultant TRB Policy Committee
Start Date October 2005
Expiration Date February 2008--Completed
Project Manager Dianne Schwager

This task provided a TCRP contribution of $75,000 to a study conducted jointly by the National Academies' Transportation Research Board and Division on Earth and Life Sciences. The cost of the full project was $900,000. Funding commitments were made by a number of organizations.

Status: This task has been completed. The final report has been published as TRB Special Report 290.

Task 64 Identification of Existing Practices, Guidelines, Strategies and Related Activities Applicable to Level Boarding and Commuter Rail Facilities and Equipment
Consultant SEB Associates
Start Date September 2005
Expiration Date October 2006--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

This task summarized current practices and strategies regarding level boarding for commuter rail facilities and equipment.

Status:  This task has been completed.


Task 65 Operation of Street-Running Light Rail Transit at Higher Speeds
Consultant Korve Engineering
Start Date April 2006
Expiration Date September 2007 -- Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

This task summarized issues and options associated with the potential for operating street-running light rail transit at higher speeds for consideration in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD).

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 66 Small Starts and New Starts Program Research
Consultant PB Consult
Start Date September 2005
Expiration Date October 2006--Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm

This task collected information from the transit industry on potential processes and criteria for analyzing and evaluating projects that will qualify for the Small Starts Program established in SAFETEA-LU. A white paper was developed that provides background information and possible approaches that were considered by APTA in its formulation of input to FTA rulemaking associated with the new program.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 67 Background Information and Issues Associated with Radio Frequency and Wireless Data Systems
Consultant Science Applications International Corporation
Start Date August 2006
Expiration Date November 2007 -- Completed
Project Manager Stephan A. Parker

This task identified and described the current status of relevant legislation and its potential impacts on the transit industry, conducted a survey of transit agencies to collect relevant information, framed key issues associated with radio frequency and wireless data systems, and developed a proposed scope of work for Project C-18 for consideration by the project panel.

Status: This task has been completed.


Task 68 Backround Information and Issues Associated with Ridership Estimates for Major Capital Projects
Consultant AECOM Consult
Start Date August 2006
Expiration Date February 2007 -- Completed
Project Manager Dianne Schwager

For major transit capital projects, this task collected information on the capital project, its projected versus actual ridership, and the key reasons for any explainable variances between projected and actual ridership. The task will identified any issues arising from this information.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 69 Quality Service in Public Transportation Organizations
Consultant PSTG Consulting
Start Date August 2007
Expiration Date March 2008--Completed
Project Manager Stephan A. Parker

This task, requested through the APTA Vice Chair-Bus & Paratransit Operations and the APTA Bus and Paratransit Committee, identified the various considerations that need to be addressed as any bus transit agency considers development and implementation of measures to strengthen the quality of services being delivered.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 70 Security Standards and Guidelines Pertinent to Public Transportation
Consultant KFH Group

Start Date September 2007
Expiration Date February 2009 -- Completed
Project Manager Stephan A. Parker

This task, requested by APTA, identified the existence of currently available security standards and guidelines that pertain to and/or are related to public transportation, and categorized these resources and documents. The available standards and guidelines were also placed into a matrix format that can be used as a tool for planning of future standards development activities. This information will be used as a resource in APTA’s new security standards effort.

Status: This task has been completed.

Task 71 Rural Transit Achievements: Assessing the Outcomes of Increased SAFETEA-LU Funding for Rural Passage Services
Consultant KFH Group
Start Date March 2008
Expiration Date May 2009 - Completed
Project Manager Dianne Schwager

This task identified how additional rural public transportation funding made available through SAFETEA-LU has been used.

Status: This task has been completed. The results have been published as Research Results Digest 93 and Web-Only Document 46.

 

Task 72 Professional Certification and Credentialing Program for the Transit Industry
McGlothin Davis, Inc.
Start Date September 2009
Expiration Date October 2010 - Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm Smith

This task examined the potential development of a professional certification and credentialing program for the transit industry.

Status: This task has been completed. The final report has been published as TCRP Research Results Digest 100.

 

Task 73 Bus Fleet Management in an Era of Increasing Technical Complexity
Eagle Harbor Group, LLC
Start Date December 2008
Expiration Date June 2009 - Completed
Project Manager Stephan A. Parker

This task researched the effect of changing conditions on fleet management standards and practices for the bus transit industry. The focus was on the development of appropriate spare ratios as a result of duty cycles, new technologies, vehicle diversity in the fleet, and other appropriate considerations.

Status: This task has been completed.

 

Task 74 Improving Mobility for Veterans
Westat, Inc.
Start Date September 2009
Expiration Date December 2010 - Completed
Project Manager Dianne Schwager

This task gathered information on legislation, policy, and procedural restrictions on veteran transportation programs, and identified transportation programs offered to veterans as well as limitations on coordination of these programs with local and regional public transportation systems.

Status: This task has been completed. The final report has been published as TCRP Research Results Digest 99.

 

Task 75 Guiding the Selection and Application of Wayside Energy Storage Technologies for Rail Transit and Electric Utilities
American Public Transportation Association
Start Date May 2009
Expiration Date September 2010 - Completed
Project Manager Lawrence Goldstein

This task conducted a transit energy storage survey and developed a guidebook that addresses the engineering analyses needed for selecting and sizing energy storage technologies.

Status: This task has been completed. The final report has been published as TCRP Web-Only Document 51.

 

Task 76 Support for a Transit Wireless Communications Joint Council
Science Applications International Corporation
Start Date July 2009
Expiration Date December 2012 - Completed
Project Manager Stephan Parker

This task provided support for a Transit Wireless Communications Joint Council co-sponsored by APTA.

Status: This task has been completed.

 

Task 77 Support for APTA/FTA Transit Train Control Assessment
Jacobs Engineering Group
Start Date August 2009
Expiration Date April 2012 - Completed
Project Manager Stephan Parker

This task provided technical support for an APTA/FTA transit train control assessment.

Status:This task has been completed.

 

Task 78 FCC Narrowbanding of Passenger Transport Provider Radio Systems in the United States
Consultant: Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, PA
Start Date November 2010
Expiration Date October 2011 - Completed
Project Manager Stephan Parker

This task developed a database of licensees that are passenger transport providers holding licenses below 512 MHz to verify this user group has been properly notified and briefed on the FCC narrowbanding regulations and what is required for compliance.

Status: This task has been completed.

 

Task 79 Positive Train Control (PTC) Radio Spectrum Planning for Passenger Commuter Rail Operations in the United States
Consultant: Stantec Consulting Group, Inc.
Start Date June 2011
Expiration Date December 2011 - Completed
Project Manager Stephan Parker

This task assessed the aggregate spectrum needs for implementation of PTC systems by all U.S. commuter rail providers, performed related analyses, and developed potential suitable spectrum options.

Status: This task has been completed.

 

Task 80 Research Symposium on Sleep Hygiene and Fatigue of Transit Operators
Consultant: TRB Technical Activities Division
Start Date April 2011
Expiration Date October 2011 - Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm Smith

This task conducted a research symposium to identify potential TCRP research topics associated with sleep hygiene and fatigue of transit operators.

Status: This task has been completed. The symposium was held October 12-13, 2011.

 

Task 81 Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT): Assessment for Transit Agencies
Consultant: RLS & Associates
Start Date September 2012
Expiration Date May 2014 - Completed
Project Manager Gwen Chisholm Smith

This task reviewed the Affordable Care Act and its impact on non-emergency medical transportation and transit agencies.

Status: This task has been completed. The final report has been published as TCRP Research Results Digest 109.

 

Task 82 Standardizing Data for Mobility Management
Consultant: TransitPlus, Inc.
Start Date January 2013
Expiration Date November 2013 - Completed
Project Manager Dianne Schwager

This task: (1) examined data and information for mobility management and present opportunities for its standardization. The research examined and cataloged existing data standards, including but not limited to, the Transit Communications Interface Profiles (TCIP) and determined applicability to this environment; and (2) described how web-based technologies (such as portals) can be used to support mobility management.

Status: This task has been completed. The final report has been published as TCRP Web-Only Document 62.

 

Task 83 Preliminary Strategic Analysis of Open Standards Fare Payment Systems for Public Transportation
Consultant: Volpe Center
Start Date October 2013
Expiration Date January 2015 - Completed
Project Manager Dianne Schwager

This task: (1) conducted a targeted, state of the practice review of emerging fare payment options for public transportation, (2) developed a typology of available and anticipated options for NGFP that can serve a broad range of transit agencies and stakeholders in the United States, and (3) evaluated the pros and cons (opportunities and barriers) of the options presented in the typology.

Status: The final report has been published in the regular TCRP report series as TCRP Report 177.

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