The synthesis will document current practices and metrics used to contract out bus operations and maintenance in North America. It will look at all situations where O&M services are contracted out (i.e. the entire network is contracted out or divisions or sections of the network are contracted out). The synthesis will document the reasons for outsourcing and the metrics used by agencies for evaluating whether to self-operate or contract out bus operations and maintenance in North America. In addition, the synthesis will ascertain how agencies are holding their third party providers accountable against contractual terms as well as methodologies that agencies use to monitor and oversee contractors. Research has been published as TCRP Synthesis 171.