Commercial ground transportation at United States airports includes public transit, door-to-door shuttle van service, charter buses, limousines, rental cars, taxicabs, hotel courtesy shuttles, wheel chair services, and courier operators. In recent years, technological developments, such as transportation network companies (TNCs, e.g., Uber and Lyft), car-sharing operations (e.g., Turo), and driverless cars, have added more options and challenges for airport ground transportation operations. These ground transportation carriers may be governed by state/local statutes and ordinances and/or airport contracts and comply with myriad federal, state, and local rules and regulations.
Federal, state and local ground transportation statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations are generally applicable, and may be supplemented by individual airport rules and regulations covering access to commercial loading and unloading areas; meeting, loading, and unloading passengers; procedures for obtaining operating permits, background checks (including access to relevant federal, state, and local databases), licenses, and agreements; AVI (automated vehicle identification) tag requirements; operator conduct; solicitation; fees; one-day or infrequent users permits; and airport security. Technological innovations such as GPS, geo-fencing capabilities, web-based apps, digital fee transactions, etc. have raised new issues for airports to address.
Because the security status of any United States airport is subject to change without advance notice, directives issued, e.g. with respect to designated loading and unloading areas, amount of time allowed for vehicles to stand or dwell at curbside, etc. may be altered by law enforcement personnel, federal Transportation Security Administration officers, or airport emergency safety personnel at any time. Local regulations may also contain penalty and enforcement provisions and grievance procedures, which vary in detail depending on the size, use, and individual characteristics of the subject airport.
The objective of this research is to build on ACRP LRD 3 and synthesize available guidance, including regulations, statutes, policies, and case decisions (administrative or court) pertaining to commercial ground transportation. The digest should include an updated survey of federal, state, and local commercial ground transportation statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations, with extensive examples of each. The digest should also include a summary of litigation and sample permits and contracts.
STATUS Research is underway