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The National Academies

TCRP J-07 [Active]

Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices

  Project Data
Funds: $700,000 (FY '92)
$625,000 (FY '93)
$475,000 (FY '94)
$375,000 (FY '95)
$375,000 (FY '96)
$400,000 (FY '97)
$200,000 (FY '98)
$400,000 (FY '99)
$400,000 (FY '00)
$400,000 (FY '01)
$375,000 (FY '02)
$400,000 (FY '03)
$500,000 (FY '04)
$600,000 (FY '05)
$600,000 (FY '06)
$600,000 (FY '07)
$600,000 (FY '08)
$700,000 (FY '09)
$755,000 (FY '10)
$750,000 (FY '11)
$650,000 (FY '12)
$350,000 (FY '13)
$550,000 (FY '14)
$650,000 (FY '15)
Staff Responsibility: Gwen Chisholm-Smith
Research Agency: Transportation Research Board
Principal Investigator: Mariela Garcia-Colberg
Effective Date: 11/1/1992

A vast storehouse of information exists on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of this information has resulted from both research and the successful application of solutions to the problems faced by practitioners in their daily work. Because previously there has been no systematic means for compiling such useful information and making it available to the entire transit community, the TOPS Committee, in 1992, authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a series of studies to search out and synthesize useful knowledge from all available sources and to prepare reports on current practices in the subject areas of concern.

This synthesis series reports on various practices, making specific recommendations where appropriate but without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Nonetheless, these documents can serve similar purposes, for each is a compendium of the best knowledge available on measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. The extent to which these reports are useful will be tempered by the user's knowledge and experience in the particular problem area.

To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of significant knowledge, the Transportation Research Board analyzes available information assembled from numerous sources including a large number of transit agencies.

A topic panel of experts in the subject area is established to guide the researchers in organizing and evaluating the data collected on each topic and to review the synthesis report. A topic consultant is selected by the panel to perform the research, assemble the information, and write the report. The consultant may be an individual or a firm, selected by the topic panel. The TRB synthesis staff officers serve as the principal investigators, guiding the preparation of the work plan, overseeing the progress of the research and report writing, providing assistance to the consultant in obtaining information, supervising the review and comments on the draft reports, and preparing and editing the final manuscript for publication.

For each topic, the project objectives are to (1) locate and assemble documented information; (2) learn what practice has been used for solving or alleviating the problems; (3) identify all ongoing research; (4) learn what problems remain largely unsolved; and (5) organize, evaluate, and document the useful information that is acquired.

Each synthesis is an immediately useful document that records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As the processes of advancement continue, new knowledge can be expected to be added to that which is now at hand.

Status:  Nine syntheses are currently in progress; 115 have been published. TCRP Research Results Digest 110 provides the most recent overview of the program, as well as an index to syntheses and studies. For instructions on how to submit a synthesis topic for consideration, please see www.trb.org/tcrp.

J-07/Topic SA-01 Bus-Route Evaluation Standards

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 10: Bus Route Evaluation Standards provides updated information to the 1984 United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) report entitled Bus Service Evaluation Methods: A Review, however, the results are not directly comparable as the respondents, questions asked, and analytical procedures differ in the 1994 synthesis. It does report what agencies do in the area of bus route, not system, evaluation standards, and how they undertake these efforts. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2451 

J-07/Topic SA-02 System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 11: System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios documents critical site specific variables that influence transit agencies' spare bus ratio policies. It profiles a select group of transit agencies of varying sizes and geographic locations and describes their operating environments in order to relate how these affect the number of spare buses each agency needs to meet its service requirements.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2450

J-07/Topic SA-03 System-Specific Spare Rail Vehicle Ratios
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 15: System-Specific Spare Rail Vehicle Ratios addresses the system-specific variables that directly impact fleet size, and the spare ratios that are maintained by individual transit agencies. From the information obtained, it appears that most rail transit agencies closely monitor the spare vehicles they maintain to maximize efficiency and thereby reduce operating costs.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2446

J-07/Topic SA-04 AVL Systems for Bus Transit
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, planning, scheduling, safety, and procurement staff, as well as agency communications and engineering staff. It addresses various aspects of developing and deploying automated vehicle location ( AVL) systems over the last 20 years. Current practice, AVL architecture and technologies, and the institutional context of AVL defined in terms of funding, justification, staffing and procurement are discussed. This report of the Transportation Research Board describes the different approaches to AVL deployment used at selected transit agencies.  It attempts to define the role of AVL for bus transit by examining objectives of implementation and both technological and operational frameworks.  The report for this topic can be purchased at http://gulliver.trb.org/bookstore/

J-07/Topic SA-05 Customer Information at Bus Stops
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 17: Customer Information at Bus Stops addresses user information systems and describes current transit agency practices regarding customer information at bus stops within the text and through tables and multiple graphic illustrations.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2444

J-07/Topic SA-06 Passenger Transfer System Review
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 19: Passenger Transfer System Review offers user information on a variety of transit agencies' approaches to transfer programs. Policy and operational issues, service design, and transfer automation are discussed, based on the experience of transit agencies in the United States and in Europe.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2442

J-07/Topic SA-07 Changing Roles and Practices of Bus Field Supervisors
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 16: Changing Roles and Practices of Bus Field Supervisors addresses the roles and responsibilities of bus field supervisors, including emerging concerns about how to improve the relationship between supervisors and bus operators, while placing supervisors in a more positive role; how to obtain a greater return from employee productivity with tightening budgets and declining ridership; and how to improve customer service.  Tis topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2445

J-07/Topic SA-08 Bus Transit Fare Collection Practices

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 26: Bus Transit Fare Collection Practices It documents fixed route bus fare collection practices at selected transit agencies. Survey responses about fare policy, fare collection equipment, fare disputes, and fare evasion issues, as well as customer information and the impact of financial assistance are offered. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2435

J-07/Topic SA-09 Passenger Counting Technologies and Procedures

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 29: Passenger Counting Technologies and Procedures summarizes information from selected transit agencies about benefits and problems associated with each passenger counting technology, as reported by current users. It also presents advice for agencies considering each technology.  

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2432

J-07/Topic SA-09A Accessibiity of Automated Fare Vending and Collection for Customers with Disabilities

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Research Results Digest 32: Accessibility of Automated Fare Vending and Collection for Customers with Disabilities identifies issues of accessibility to automated fare collection and vending machines by transit customers, examines the extent to which these issues arise, and describes solutions that have been implemented or identified as promising. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2492


 

J-07/Topic SA-10 Data Collection for Bus Planning and Monitoring

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 34: Data Analysis for Bus Planning and Monitoring reviews the state of the practice in how data are analyzed. It addresses methods used to analyze data and what computer systems are used to store and process data. It also covers accuracy issues, including measurement error, and other problems, including error in estimates. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2427

J-07/Topic SA-11 Transportation on College and University Campuses

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 39: Transportation on College and University Campuses offers survey information from 30 campus transit agencies including insights into the lessons learned and issues related to planning, implementing, and operating campus transit service. The focus is on the recent trend toward unlimited access funding systems for campus transit service, whereby students, faculty, staff, and in some cases, non-university-affiliated residents of a campus community are afforded unlimited use of transit service without paying a fare.  

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=562

 

J-07/Topic SA-12 Electronic Surveillance Technology on Transit Vehicles

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 38: Electronic Surveillance Technology on Transit Vehicles describes the state of the practice concerning the use of on-board vehicle surveillance technologies designed to address both safety and security issues at public transportation agencies. It includes a review of emerging technologies likely to be implemented in the near future in the transit environment. Issues and shortcomings with surveillance are addressed, including financial, legal, maintenance, and procedural concerns. This document touches on the successes and failures of systems in meeting both system needs and product descriptions.

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2423

J-07/Topic SA-13 Yield to Bus --State of the Practice

TRB’s Transportation Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 49: Yield to Bus -- State of the Practice examines yield to bus programs in California, Florida, Oregon, Washington State, and British Columbia. It documents information gathered about the legislative process and history; program implementation, including public awareness and education campaigns, employee awareness and training, and the design and location of the yield display on the bus; as well as transit agency experiences covering transit operational issues, traffic operational issues, institutional issues, and public acceptance. 

This report is published at  http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=1951

J-07/Topic SA-14 Real Time Bus Arrival Information Systems

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis Report 48: Real-Time Bus Arrival Information Systems includes information on relevant technical capabilities, agency experience, cost, and bus rider reactions to real-time bus arrival information systems. The report describes the state of the practice, including both U.S. and international experience.

J-07/Topic SA-15 Computer-Aided Scheduling and Dispatch in Demand-Responsive Transit Services

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 57: Computer-Aided Scheduling and Dispatch in Demand-Responsive Transit Services explores the experiences of selected transit agencies, four contract service providers, and four software vendors, focusing on current practice, successful implementation of computer-aided scheduling and dispatch (CASD) systems, and impediments to success. The report summarizes the state-of-the-practice experiences of a selected group of transit agencies about the implementation and use of CASD systems employed to provide Americans with Disabilities Act and other DRT services. In addition, it identifies much of the past and ongoing research pertaining to the topic.

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=4553

J-07/Topic SA-16 Uses of Higher Capacity Buses in Transit Service

TRB’s Transportation Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 75: Uses of Higher Capacity Buses in Transit Service explores the use of higher capacity (HC) public transit buses in trunk, express, long-distance commuter, Bus Rapid Transit, and special (e.g., sports and special events) services in North America. For purposes of this study, HC buses included articulated, double-deck, 45-ft, and other buses that have a significant increase in passenger capacity compared with conventional 40-ft buses.

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=9213

J-07/Topic SA-17 AVL Systems for Bus Transit Update

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 73: AVL Systems for Bus Transit: Update explores the uses of computer-aided dispatch/automatic vehicle location (CAD/AVL) systems in fixed-route and demand-responsive services (bus AVL), as well as changes in agency practices related to the use of AVL systems. 

The report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=9051

J-07/Topic SA-18 Passenger Counting Systems

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 77: Passenger Counting Systems explores analytical tools and technologies for collecting transit ridership and other subsidiary data. The report also examines issues of potential concern to transit agencies considering automatic passenger counter systems.

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=9942

J-07/Topic SA-19 Transit Systems in College and University Communities
 TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 78: Transit Systems in College and University Communities has released a report that explores practices and trends in the areas of campus transit operations, policies, and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations.  The report also examines innovative partnership strategies used to enhance services for students, faculty, staff, and the surrounding community.  A link to the report can be found at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=9857.

J-07/Topic SA-20 Light Rail Vehicle Collisions with Vehicles at Signalized Intersections
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 79: Light Rail Vehicle Collisions with Vehicles at Signalized Intersections explores mitigation methods tested and used by transit agencies to reduce collisions between light rail vehicles (LRVs) and motor vehicles where light rail transit (LRT) runs through or adjacent to highway intersections controlled by conventional traffic signals.  A link to the report can be found at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=10004.

J-07/Topic SA-22 Bus Rail Preferential Treatments in Mixed Traffic
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 83: Bus and Rail Transit Preferential Treatments in Mixed Traffic explores the application of different transit preferential treatments in mixed traffic. The report also examines the decision-making process that may be applied in deciding which preferential treatment might be the most applicable in a particular location.

J-07/Topic SA-23 Practices in the Development and Deployment of Downtown Circulators

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 87: Practices in the Development and Deployment of Downtown Circulators explores the development, deployment, and sustainability of downtown circulator systems.

J-07/Topic SA-24 Video Surveillance Uses By Rail Transit Agencies

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 90: Video Surveillance Uses by Rail Transit Agencies explores the current use of electronic video surveillance technology solely by passenger rail agencies onboard railcars, along rights-of-way, and more.

J-07/Topic SA-25 Use of Mobile Device Technology for Real-Time Transit Information

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 91: Use and Deployment of Mobile Device Technology for Real-Time Transit Information examines the use and deployment of real-time transit information on mobile devices.

The report explores the underlying technology required to generate the information to be disseminated, the mobile technology used for dissemination, the characteristics of the information, the resources required to successfully deploy information on mobile devices, and the contribution of mobile messaging to an overall agency communications strategy, including “information equity.”

J-07/Topic SA-26 Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 101: Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems highlights the experiences of public transit agencies that have planned, implemented, and operated fare-free transit systems.

The report focuses on public transit agencies that are either direct recipients or subrecipients of federal transit grants and that furnish fare-free services to everyone in a service area on every mode provided.

J-07/Topic SA-27 Off-Board Transit Fare Payment Using Proof-0f-Purchase Verification

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 96: Off-Board Fare Payment Using Proof-of-Payment Verification examines the application of proof-of-payment (PoP) on transit systems in North America and internationally.

TCRP Synthesis 96 updates
TCRP Report 80: A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection.

Issues address by TCRP Synthesis 96 include evasion rates, inspection rates, enforcement techniques, duties of fare inspection personnel, adjudication processes, and the kinds of penalties involved for evasion.

J-07/Topic SA-28 Use of Electronic On-Street Signage in Transit

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 104: Use of Electronic Passenger Information Signage in Transit documents U.S. and international use of electronic passenger information signage in terms of the underlying technology, sign technology, characteristics of the information, resources required, and decision processes used to determine its use.

J-07/Topic SA-29 Energy Savings Strategies for Transit Agencies
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 106: Energy Savings Strategies for Transit Agencies describes energy reduction strategies being used in the United State and Canada that address vehicle technologies; vehicle operations, maintenance, and service design; non-revenue vehicles; stations and stops; building; indirect energy use; and renewable power generation.

J-07/Topic SA-30 Maintaining Transit Effectiveness under Major Financial Constraints

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 112: Maintaining Transit Effectiveness Under Major Financial Constraints discusses transit agencies that implemented plans to increase their cost effectiveness and how the agencies communicated with their communities during challenging fiscal circumstances.

J-07/Topic SA-31 Common Sense Approaches for Improving Transit Bus Speeds

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 110: Commonsense Approaches for Improving Transit Bus Speeds explores approaches transit agencies have taken to realize gains in average bus speeds.

The report also identifies metrics pertaining to measures such as changes in travel speed and its components, operating cost, and ridership. It shows the results of each or a combination of approaches implemented.

J-07/Topic SA-32 System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios Update

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 109: System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios Update documents successful practices in the United States and Canada, and presents information on efforts employed to achieve optimal bus fleet size and effective spare bus ratios. The synthesis is designed to provide guidance to transit agencies on how various factors may affect optimal fleet size.

Appendix D: Compilation of Agency Survey Responses was not printed not included in the print or PDF version of TCRP Synthesis 109. It is, however, available for download from this site.

TCRP Synthesis 109 updates the findings of TCRP Synthesis 11: System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios, as significant changes have occurred in the transit industry since 1995.

J-07/Topic SA-33 Critical Incident Management and Clearance Practices for Rail Transit

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 114: Critical Incident Management and Clearance Practices for Rail Transit summarizes the current state of the practice regarding incident response and identifies strategies for post-incident evaluations.

J-07/Topic SA-34 Open Data: Challenges and Opportunities for Transit Agencies

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 115: Open Data: Challenges and Opportunities for Transit Agencies documents the current state of the practice in the use, policies, and impact of open data for improving transit planning, service quality, and treatment of customer information.

J-07/Topic SA-35 Better On-Street Bus Stops

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 117: Better On-Street Bus Stops explores major issues and successful approaches to address on-street bus stops from both the transit agency’s perspective and customer's perspective. It documents the current state of the practice with regard to actions taken to address constraints and improvements to on-street bus stops.

J-07/Topic SA-36 OnBoard Camera Applications for Buses

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 123: Onboard Camera Applications for Buses explores the current technologies, research, and opportunities for use. The report also provides examples of how surveillance systems are used to improve operations, safety, security, training, and customer satisfaction.

J-07/Topic SA-37 Multi-agency Electronic Fare Payment Systems

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 125: Multiagency Electronic Fare Payment Systems describes the current practice, challenges, and benefits of utilizing electronic fare payment systems (EFPS), such as smart cards. This synthesis reviews current systems and identifies their major challenges and benefits; describes the use of electronic fare systems in multimodal, multiagency environments; and reviews next-generation approaches through existing implementation case examples.

J-07/Topic SA-38 Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 126: Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies documents current practices and training initiatives, including bus operator training and retraining programs that have been effective in reducing accidents and incidents at transit agencies. The study also focuses on other system approaches that have been implemented to address safety hazards. These approaches include various technology applications, infrastructure modifications, and programs and initiatives such as driver incentive programs and close call/near miss reporting.

J-07/Topic SA-39 Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops

This synthesis will survey North American transit operators affected by extreme weather events to determine what methods and procedures are used for clearing bus stops, shelters, and access walkways.

J-07/Topic SA-40 Planning and Design for Fire and Smoke Incidents in Underground Passenger Rail Systems

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 124: Planning and Design for Fire and Smoke Incidents in Underground Passenger Rail Systems documents the state-of-the-practice to address fire and smoke incidents. Fires in underground passenger rail tunnels require implementation of different measures in order to provide safety for the passengers and ensure structural and system integrity of the facilities and operating infrastructure. The publication addresses planning, design, and operations to address fire and smoke incidents, and identifies current practices including lessons learned, challenges, and gaps in information.

J-07/Topic SA-41 Battery Electric Buses - State of the Practice
The goal of this study is to provide an overview of the current state of practice regarding the deployment of electric battery buses (i.e., service, operations and maintenance). Information will be gathered by a literature review and a survey of the current transit systems that deploy electric buses.

J-07/Topic SA-42 College Student Transit Pass Programs
Many large transit agencies currently have student pass programs with colleges and universities. These are commonly known as U-Pass programs. These may have very different structures and operating regimes. Compiling information on these programs would be very useful for all transit agencies serving college student populations.

J-07/Topic SA-43 Transit Service Evaluation Standards
The goal of this study is to provide an overview of the current state of practice regarding transit service evaluation standard and the performance measures and criteria used by North American transit agencies to evaluate the quantity and quality of service provided.

J-07/Topic SA-44 Comprehensive Bus Network Redesign
The goal of this study is to provide an overview of the current state of practice regarding network redesign implementation strategies. The principles of technical network planning are important and merit discussion, but the TCRP Synthesis will be most valuable if it also summarizes agency approaches to deciding that a comprehensive redesign is needed, identifying political champions, communicating with community stakeholders about the project, and choosing between technical implementation options.

J-07/Topic SB-01 Integration of Bicycles and Transit

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 62: Integration of Bicycles and Transit examines how transit agencies may improve their existing services and assist other communities in developing new bicycle and transit services.  Synthesis 62 updates TCRP Synthesis 4: Integration of Bicycles and Transit (1994).  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=5615

J-07/Topic SB-02 Innovative Suburb-to-Suburb Transit Practices
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 14: Innovative Suburb-to-Suburb Transit Practices provides information about the suburban shift from the more traditional central business district oriented service patterns of selected transit agencies. Transit agencies with limited marketing successes in this area are being challenged to address these nontraditional markets anew.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2447

J-07/Topic SB-03 ADA Paratransit Eligibility Certification Practices

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 30: ADA Paratransit Eligibility Certification Practices describes the complexities involved in creating an accurate eligibility determination process that complies with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and is regionally and politically feasible to implement. This study documents the range of outcomes produced by the different eligibility certification models and offers information about their overall effectiveness.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2431

J-07/Topic SB-04 Transit Advertising Revenue: New Sources and Structures
TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 32: Transit Advertising Revenue: Traditional and New Sources and Structures offers information from selected North American and other transit agencies about the existing environment for advertising on transit property and describes agency experiences. It also explores innovative revenue-generating practices.   This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2429

J-07/Topic SB-05 Communicating with Persons with Disabilities in a Multimodal Transit Environment

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 37: Communicating with Persons with Disabilities in a Multimodal Transit Environment describes current North American transit practice in information and communication technologies, as well as operations, implementation, and human factor issues. Attention is given to information and communication technologies related to planning, customer service, marketing, and training that can improve the travel experience for all persons traveling in a transit environment. The focus is on the communication techniques and technologies for persons with sensory and cognitive disabilities.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2424

J-07/Topic SB-06 Use of Small Buses in Transit Service

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 41: The Use of Small Buses in Transit Service examines the use of small buses -- 30 ft or less in length -- as replacements for large buses in fixed-route, scheduled servcice or those used in innovative, more flexible operations such as route deviation or demand-resonse service. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=560

J-07/Topic SB-07 Customer-Focused Transit
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 45, Customer-Focused Transit, documents the experiences of selected public transportation agencies in developing and implementing customer-service programs by examining the effectiveness of certain customer-focused activities.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=1039

J-07/Topic SB-08 Effective Use of Transit Web Sites

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 43: Effective Use of Transit Websites explores current practices and recent experiences concerning website design, marketing, and administration. 

This report is published at  http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=645

J-07/Topic SB-09 Operational Experiences With Flexible Transit Services

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 53: Operational Experiences with Flexible Transit Services examines transit agency experiences with “flexible transit services,” including all types of hybrid services that are not pure demand-responsive (including dial-a-ride and Americans with Disabilities Act paratransit) or fixed-route services, but that fall somewhere in between those traditional service models.  

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=4046

J-07/Topic SB-10 Transit Advertising Sales Agreements

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 51: Transit Advertising Sales Agreements documents and summarizes transit agency experiences with advertising sales and synthesizes current practices for advertising sales, contracting, and display. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2991

J-07/Topic SB-11 Practices in Late Cancellation/No-Show Policies for ADA Paratransit

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 60: Practices in No-Show and Late Cancellation Policies for ADA Paratransit examines current and innovative practices of U.S. transit agencies in the development and implementation of passenger no-show and late cancellation policies for paratransit programs operated under the regulatory requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA).  The report reviews the administration, community response, and effectiveness of policies in small, medium, and large transit agencies.  The report addresses policies as a way to improve system productivity, efficiency, and capacity, and as a means to better service riders with disabilities who may experience difficulties with the advance reservation aspect of most ADA complementary paratransit operations. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=5343

J-07/Topic SB-12 Integration of Bicycles and Transit

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 62: Integration of Bicycles and Transit examines how transit agencies may improve their existing services and assist other communities in developing new bicycle and transit services.  Synthesis 62 updates TCRP Synthesis 4: Integration of Bicycles and Transit (1994). 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=5615

J-07/Topic SB-13 Transit Agency Participation in Medicaid Transportation Programs

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 65: Transit Agency Participation in Medicaid Transportation Programs explores the tasks that may help develop successful public transit–non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) partnerships.  The report examines real and perceived barriers to NEMT and public transit coordination and includes case studies of Medicaid transportation program participation by transit agencies. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=6603

J-07/Topic SB-14 Methods of Ridership Communication

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 68: Methods of Rider Communication examines methods of communicating with transit customers in a variety of situations. The report explores the state of the practice in transit agency communications with customers, investigates how transit agencies determine the effectiveness of their communications activities, and reviews lessons learned in developing communications programs and communicating by electronic means. 

This report is published at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_syn_68.pdf

J-07/Topic SB-15 Cost Containment for Paratransit Rider Services

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 74: Policies and Practices for Effectively and Efficiently Meeting ADA Paratransit Demand highlights policies and practices that transit agencies may be able to apply to their own paratransit services, often without the need to devote significant funds, personnel, or other resources.  The report also examines certain practices and technologies that are still under development or have not undergone extensive testing.

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=9150

J-07/Topic SB-16 Integration of Paratransit and Fixed Route Transit Services

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 76: Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services explores the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services.  Options examined in the report include the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. 

J-07/Topic SB-17 Innovative Rural Transit Services

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 94: Innovative Rural Transit Services highlights transit and rural intercity bus service responses to changing rural community transportation needs. The report includes an emphasis on the innovative and/or entrepreneurial spirit, the innovator, and the conditions required for innovation.

J-07/Topic SB-18 Strollers, Carts and Other Large Items on Buses and Trains

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 88: Strollers, Carts, and Other Large Items on Buses and Trains documents the state of the practice of transit agencies managing capacity on vehicles carrying customers with large items. The synthesis also includes a discussion of vehicle designs to accommodate these various large items.

J-07/Topic SB-19 Ridesharing as a Complement to Transit

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 98: Ridesharing as a Complement to Transit explores current practices in using ridesharing to complement public transit and highlights ways to potentially enhance ridesharing and public transit.

J-07/Topic SB-20 Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 99: Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation explores the use of social media among transit agencies and documents successful practices in the United States and Canada.

For the purposes of the report, social media are defined as a group of web-based applications that encourage users to interact with one another, such as blogs, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Foursquare, and MySpace.

J-07/Topic SB-21 Transit Station and Stop Adoption Programs

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 103: Transit Station and Stop Adoption Programs explores transit agency programs in which local organizations, individuals, or other partners “adopt” a transit station or stop and receive recognition or incentives in exchange for, periodically, performing duties such as removing litter, maintaining vegetation, or reporting suspicious activity.

J-07/Topic SB-22 Use of Customer Market Research Panels in Transit
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 105: Use of Market Research Panels in Transit describes the various types of market research panels, identifies issues that researchers should be aware of when engaging in market research and panel surveys, and provides examples of successful market research panel programs.

The report also provides information about common pitfalls to be avoided and successful techniques that may help maximize research dollars without jeopardizing the quality of the data or validity of the results.

J-07/Topic SB-23 Integrating Passenger Ferry Service with Mass Transit
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 102: Integrating Passenger Ferry Service with Mass Transit examines the integration between land- and water-based transit systems and explores successful aspects of seamless integration.

J-07/Topic SB-24 Methods for Title VI Fare and Service Equity Analysis
This synthesis can report on successful practices for undertaking fare and service equity analysis. It can identify methods for collecting data, including demographic information, transit survey techniques, and information available from government and private sources in the public domain. Additionally, the analytical methods used to complete the fare and service equity analysis may be identified for a variety of fare and service change applications. This would be helpful to small, medium, and large transit agencies which are required to undertake the Title VI Equity Analysis when fares are changed, transit service is expanded, or routes are reduced.

J-07/Topic SB-25 Practices for Establishing ADA Paratransit Assessment Facilities

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 116: Practices for Establishing ADA Paratransit Eligibility Assessment Facilities examines practices that transit agencies use to determine if a user is eligible for paratransit under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Specifically, it reviews the processes, facilities, equipment, and tools used by transit agencies, through data collection that included in-person interviews and functional assessments.

J-07/Topic SB-26 Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 119: Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults explores and summarizes how taxis may be used by public transportation agencies to provide disabled or older adults with greater mobility and access to their destinations. The report also identifies potential advantages and challenges that public transportation agencies may face when using taxis.

J-07/Topic SB-27 Public Transit and Bikesharing
The goal of this synthesis is to provide a better understanding of cooperative transit and bikesharing relationships and to document the experiences of transit systems with bikesharing as a mode.

J-07/Topic SB-28 Administration of ADA Paratransit Eligibility Appeal Programs

Although several reports describe transit agency practices for determining eligibility for ADA paratransit service, little has been documented about how transit agencies manage appeals by applicants who are determined to be “not eligible” or are found “conditionally eligible,” including temporary eligibility. This synthesis will document the current state of the practice and identify challenges and lessons learned through a literature review, survey of representative transit agencies, and documentation of selected case examples/profiles.

J-07/Topic SB-29 Customer Focused Service Guarantees and Transparency Practices
This synthesis will document the nature and prevalence of service guarantees among transit providers in North America and assess their impact on revenue and ridership.

J-07/Topic SB-31 Implementing the US DOT Reasonable Modification Rule
The goal of this study is to provide an overview of the current state of practice regarding the experiences of transit agencies as they have responded to the regulation: new policies developed; actual requests for accommodations; responses to these requests; and ideas for improving the process.

J-07/Topic SC-01 Safe Operating Procedures for Alternative Fuel Buses
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 1: Safe Operating Procedures for Alternative Fuel Buses includes information on the use of methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and other alternative fuels for buses.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2460

J-07/Topic SC-02 Waste Control Practices at Bus Maintenance Facilities
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 9: Waste Control Practices at Bus Maintenance Facilities explores waste management practices employed in bus maintenance and fueling operations and it identifies some successful practices that are being employed to reduce or eliminate waste.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2452

J-07/Topic SC-03 Low-Floor Transit Buses
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 2: Low-Floor Transit Buses examines the operational experiences of low-floor transit buses in fixed route service and the viability of this technology in meeting the transit industry's accessibility goals for the future. Information on low-floor transit buses operating in the United States and Canada, including technical specifications as well as status reports on buses manufactured in North America; buses under development; and buses in Europe, obtained from contacts with international organizations is included. It contains descriptions of standard low-floor buses, as well as another smaller bus used primarily in paratransit service.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2459

J-07/Topic SC-04 Retrofit of Buses to Meet Clean Air Regulations
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 8: Retrofit of Buses to Meet Clean Air Regulations summarizes the options available under the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Urban Bus Retrofit/Rebuild Program for heavy-duty diesel bus engines and clarifies the information in the regulations for transit agencies developing their own strategies for compliance. This synthesis also provides an overview of transit agency programs already in place to reduce particulate matter (PM)emissions.
This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2453

J-07/Topic SC-05 Light Rail Vehicle Compression Requirements
TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 25: Light Rail Vehicle Compression Requirements describes compression test requirements, presents available information on the development of specifications and standards, and provides examples of adjustments under particular circumstances.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2436

J-07/Topic SC-06 Use of Rear-Facing Position For Common Wheelchairs on Transit Buses

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 50: Use of Rear-Facing Position for Common Wheelchairs on Transit Buses describes the international state of the practice with respect to use of the rear-facing position for accommodating “common wheelchairs” (as defined by the Americans with Disabilities Act) on large transit buses (more than 30,000 lbs) and identifies pertinent issues related to its transferability to the U.S. context.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2311

J-07/Topic SC-07 Emergency Response Protocols for Natural Gas PoweredTransit Vehicles

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 58: Emergency Response Procedures for Natural Gas Transit Vehicles identifies and documents the state of the practice on emergency response protocols to incidents involving natural gas-filled transit buses.  The report is designed to assist first responders to natural gas incidents—emergency response professionals such as police officers and fire-fighters; transit agency operations and maintenance employees, police, and security guards; and certain members of the general public.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=4806

J-07/Topic SC-08 Use of Mobile Data Terminals (MDTs) in Transit

J-07/Topic SC-09 Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet

J-07/Topic SD-01 Regulatory Impacts of Design and Retrofit on Bus Maintenance Facilities
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 7: Regulatory Impacts on Design and Retrofit of Bus Maintenance Facilities describes how recently enacted legislation and implemented regulations have affected the design of bus maintenance facilities. Several case examples of changes implemented by transit agencies are included.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2454

J-07/Topic SD-02 Rail Transit Tunnel and Underground Structures Inspection Policy and Procedures

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 23: Inspection Policy and Procedures for Rail Transit Tunnels and Underground Structures describes the current state of the practice for specific management policies and procedures and engineering/physical techniques used to inspect rail transit tunnels and underground structures. It discusses the available data on, different approaches of, and potential data inadequacies for agency rail transit tunnel inspection policies and procedures and inspection techniques. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2438

J-07/Topic SD-03 Bus Use of Shoulders

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 64: Bus Use of Shoulders explores transit agencies’ experiences with policies and regulations that permit buses to use shoulders on arterial roads or freeways to bypass congestion either as interim or long-term treatments.  The report examines the issue from the transit and highway perspectives. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=6444


J-07/Topic SD-04 Rail Transit Track Inspection Practices
TRBs Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 107: TCRP Synthesis 107, Rail Transit Track Inspection Practices offers information across a range of older and newer U.S. rail transit agencies on track inspection practices and policies.

Since there are no actual rail track safety or maintenance standards promulgated for transit, this report is designed to help to provide rail transit agencies with information that might help it develop its own set of track safety and maintenance standards.

Issues addressed in the report include agency staffing, agency organization and characteristics, track inspection program criteria, training and certification, procurement, and track safety practices.

J-07/Topic SD-05 Mitigating Third Rail Insulator Failures through New Technology
The goal of this study is to provide an overview of the current state of practice regarding issues and incidents of insulator failure and what the agencies are doing to prevent the issues.

J-07/Topic SE-01 Transit Bus Service Line and Cleaning Functions

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 12: Transit Bus Service Line and Cleaning Functions provides a variety of approaches to transit bus service line and cleaning functions so transit agencies can evaluate the effectiveness of their own operations. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2449

J-07/Topic SE-02 Maintenance Productivity Practices

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 54: Maintenance Productivity Practices provides descriptions of successful maintenance productivity programs and creative modifications to existing programs. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=4199


 

J-07/Topic SE-03 Maintenance Staffing Levels for Light Rail Transit Systems

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 61: Maintenance Staffing Levels for Light Rail Transit examines light rail maintenance staffing practices and factors important in their development at U.S. transit agencies. It covers the areas of maintenance functions, new light rail start-up, and management in attempting to give better insight into the variables affecting maintenance staffing. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=5503

J-07/Topic SE-04 Track Maintenance Costs on Rail Transit Properties

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Web-Only Document 43: Track Maintenance Costs on Rail Transit Properties examines agency practices, innovations, and lessons learned in track maintenance costs.  A link of this report is located at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=10535.

J-07/Topic SE-05 Preventive Maintenance Intervals for Transit Buses
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 81: Preventive Maintenance Intervals for Transit Buses explores preventive maintenance measures taken by a sampling of transit agencies to ensure buses are on time, protect taxpayer investments, and promote passenger satisfaction and public safety.

J-07/Topic SE-06 Elevator and Escalator Maintenance Practices
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 100: Elevator and Escalator Maintenance and Safety Practices documents elevator and escalator maintenance activities, safety practices, and passenger communication efforts at five U.S. transit agencies.

The five agencies where information was gathered are MARTA (Atlanta, Georgia), NYCTA (New York, New York), SEPTA (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), CTA (Chicago, Illinois), and BART (San Francisco, California). These five agencies together operate 1,418 elevators and escalators throughout 850 rail stations.

Together, they are part of a U.S. Federal Transit Administration-sponsored consortium with the American Public Transportation Association, Amalgamated Transit Union, and the Learning Center, engaged in developing a Transit Elevator/Escalator Maintenance Training and Apprenticeship Program.

The following four appendixes to TCRP Synthesis 100 are available in electronic format only. Links to the appendixes are below.
BART Elevator PM, 59
BART Escalator PM, 254
BART El-Es Training 1, 507
BART El-Es Training 2, 556

J-07/Topic SF-01 Bus Occupant Safety

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 18: Bus Occupant Safety offers information on the current practices of transit agencies to reduce injuries to bus occupants during collisions and injuries to passengers while boarding, riding, and leaving the bus. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2443

J-07/Topic SF-02 Employee Incentive Programs to Improve Transit Performance

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 3: Employee Incentive Programs to Improve Transit Performance provides an overview of current practice in employee incentive programs. Information on incentive programs that provide a one-time payment or recognition for a particular job accomplishment are presented as gleaned from survey responses from a varied group of public transit agencies. The synthesis contains observations on establishing incentive programs in public transit agencies, information on the types of incentive programs in transit organizations, and describes samples of programs in use, as well as offering general perceptions from survey recipients. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2458

J-07/Topic SF-03 Methods for Reducing Violence and Improving Transit Security

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 21: Improving Transit Security examines the nature and extent of transit crime, effective strategies to combat problem situations, and case studies of specific control practices deemed successful by transit agency professionals (with no distinctions drawn between bus and rail modes) are discussed.  

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2440

J-07/Topic SF-04 Monitoring Maintenance Performance

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 22: Monitoring Bus Maintenance Performance describes current practices related to maintenance performance. The objective is to identify how maintenance performance measures drive day-to-day and strategic decisions.  

This report is published at  http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2439

J-07/Topic SF-05 Emergency Preparedness for Transit Counter Terrorism

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 27: Emergency Preparedness for Transit Terrorism provides a useful perspective on mass transit preparedness, offering information on the current practices of selected transit agencies to prevent and respond to terrorism and acts of extreme violence. This synthesis contrasts transit perspectives to those of general service police through a review of the relevant literature.  

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2434

J-07/Topic SF-06 Practices in Ensuring Employee Availability

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 33: Practices in Assuring Employee Availability presents state of the practice information about the various actions transit agencies (and other employers) have taken to help ensure the availability of quality employees in an increasingly competitive employment environment. It focuses on the practices and policies transit agencies have put in place to help minimize absenteeism at their agencies, from which other agencies may find useful applications.  

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2428

J-07/Topic SF-07 A Challenged Employment System: Hiring,Training,Performance Evaluation, and Retention of Bus Operators

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 40: A Challenged Employment System: Hiring, Training, Performance Evaluation, and Retention of Bus Operators provides a snapshot of public agencies' practices in bus operator hiring, training, performance evaluation, and retention. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=561

J-07/Topic SF-08 Diversity Training Initiatives
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 46: Diversity Training Initiatives identifies diversity training initiatives and related performance measures, examines the effectiveness of existing transit diversity initiatives, and discusses unmet needs and potential research.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=1608

J-07/Topic SF-09 Training for On-Board Bus Electronics
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 44: Training for On-Board Bus Electronics documents training practices concerning the application and repair of advanced on-board electronics.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=806

J-07/Topic SF-10 Corporate Culture as the Driver of Transit Leadership Practices
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 47: Corporate Culture as the Driver of Transportation Leadership Practices provides an accounting of how transit agencies are addressing transit leadership development and retention.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=1607

J-07/Topic SF-11 Transit Operator Health and Wellness Programs
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 52: Transit Operator Health and Wellness Programs examines health and wellness issues faced by bus and rail operators, the impacts of these issues on operators’ abilities to be productive employees, and programs that transit agencies have implemented to improve the health status of operators.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=3693

J-07/Topic SF-12 Paratransit Manager's Skills, Qualifications, and Needs

J-07/Topic SF-13 Transit Security Update

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 80: Transit Security Update explores transit-related counterterrorism and anti-crime security measures and practices; examines crime and security incident trends; and highlights other related topics, including major issues and obstacles to security and policing management.  The report is an update to TCRP Synthesis of Transit Practice 21: Improving Transit Security, which did not address terrorism.  A link to the report can be located at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=10105.

 

J-07/Topic SF-14 Practices to Protect Bus Operators from Passenger Assault

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 93: Practices to Protect Bus Operators from Passenger Assault highlights practices and policies implemented by transit agencies to deter and mitigate assaults on bus operators.

J-07/Topic SF-15 Practices in Wayside Rail Track/Transit Worker Safety Protection

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 95: Practices for Wayside Rail Transit Worker Protection is designed to highlight knowledge, practice, lessons learned, and gaps in information related to wayside rail transit worker protection programs.

J-07/Topic SF-16 Improving Bus Transit Safety through Rewards and Discipline

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 97: Improving Bus Transit Safety Through Rewards and Discipline addresses the practices and experiences of public transit agencies in applying both corrective actions and rewards to recognize, motivate, and reinforce a safety culture within their organizations.

J-07/Topic SF-17 Transit Bus Operator Distraction Policies and Outcomes

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 108: Transit Bus Operator Distraction Policies is designed to help transit agencies develop policies and programs to address and prevent distracted driving incidents.

J-07/Topic SF-18 Use of Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) Tests Within Transit

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 120: Use of Automotive Service Excellence Tests Within Transit documents how the Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) program is accepted and used within the transit bus maintenance community. The ASE program is nationally recognized as the standard industry credential provider for automotive professionals. The report explores how a cross section of transit bus maintenance personnel view the ASE certification program and summarizes their perspectives to improve ASE certification acceptance and participation.

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J-07/Topic SF-19 Addressing Difficult Customer Situations
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 127: Addressing Difficult Customer Situations explores issues surrounding difficult customers or passengers and the variety of circumstances that can arise when they utilize transit system facilities or vehicles. The report identifies current practices used by transit agencies to prevent, prepare for, and deal with these incidents.

J-07/Topic SF-20 Managing the Transit Scheduling Workforce
The goal of this study is to provide an overview of the current state of practice regarding how transit agencies approach management of transit scheduling human capital.

J-07/Topic SG-01 Risk Management for Small and Medium Transit Agencies
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 13: Risk Management for Small and Medium Transit Agencies provides information on how small and medium-sized transit agencies can evaluate various approaches to risk management and can access risk management services at reasonable cost.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2448

J-07/Topic SG-03 Management Information Systems
TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 35: Information Technology Update for Transit is an update of TCRP Synthesis 5: Management Information Systems, and documents the transit industry's state of the practice in information and communication technologies against a contemporary background of business practice. It is organized into the basic architectural pieces that constitute an IT plan in order to provide the essential framework for the planning process. Additionally, organizational issues and policies and market trends affecting investment in and deployment of Management Information System (MIS) technology are documented.   This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2426

J-07/Topic SG-04 The Role of Performance-Based Measures in Allocating Funding for Transit Operations
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 6: The Role of Performance-Based Measures in Allocating Funding for Transit Operations explores current practice and trends regarding the linkages between financial assistance, service provision, and performance measurement. It provides an overview of selected transit agency funding programs, as well as some current information from state departments of transportation.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2455

J-07/Topic SG-05 Managing Transit Construction Contract Claims

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 28: Managing Transit Construction Contract Claims offers information from selected transit agencies about the underlying causes of construction disputes and practices in use today to identify and resolve them before they become formal claims. The synthesis focuses on avoidance and resolution of disputes, examines ways of settling disputes at their inception, and considers the experiences of the transit industry in the use of alternative dispute resolution techniques. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2433

J-07/Topic SG-06 Paratransit Contracting and Service Delivery Methods

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 31: Paratransit Contracting and Service Delivery Methods offers information from selected transit agencies about the operational practices used to provide Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) paratransit services and identifies factors perceived by transit personnel to have influenced the selection of service delivery methodology. It focuses on the state of the practice in paratransit contracting and service delivery methods to comply with ADA paratransit provisions. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2430

J-07/Topic SG-07 Identifying and Reducing Fraudulent Third Party Tort Claims Against Public Transit Agencies

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 36: Identifying and Reducing Fraudulent Third Party Tort Claims Against Public Transit Agencies Research Board describes those practices in place at public transit agencies to prevent and respond to third party fraudulent claims, including a review of salient aspects of the public transit claims process in the context of managing current and partial tort liability. It examines the level of claims, presents a structured methodology for approaching the fraudulent claims issue, and describes practices that have been implemented to reduce claims abuse. The emphasis is on strategies that organizations have adopted to counter insurance fraud. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2425

J-07/Topic SG-08 Information Technology Update for Transit

TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 35: Information Technology Update for Transit is an update of TCRP Synthesis 5: Management Information Systems, and documents the transit industry's state of the practice in information and communication technologies against a contemporary background of business practice. It is organized into the basic architectural pieces that constitute an IT plan in order to provide the essential framework for the planning process. Additionally, organizational issues and policies and market trends affecting investment in and deployment of Management Information System (MIS) technology are documented.  

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2426

J-07/Topic SG-10 Performance-Based Measures in Transit Fund Allocation

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 56: Performance-Based Measures in Transit Fund Allocation examines the extent to which traditional measures of transit performance, such as internal measures of economic efficiency, service effectiveness, and productivity, are used in allocating funds to transit. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=4552

J-07/Topic SG-11 Transit Asset Condition Reporting

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 92: Transit Asset Condition Reporting examines and documents the current state of the practice in transit asset condition management. The report defines transit asset management as a strategic planning process that supports informed capital investment planning and programming.

The report’s objective is to provide transit agencies and their federal, state, and local funding partners with a review of current practices in order to help encourage an industry-wide discussion on standards and the data needed to measure conditions and use the information in making effective investment decisions.

J-07/Topic SG-12 Optimizing Bus Warranty

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 111: Optimizing Bus Warranty explores how some transit agencies address key aspects of their warranty programs. The report examines the steps taken to more accurately monitor warranty coverage periods, optimize the warranty process, and maximize warranty reimbursement to fulfill U.S. Federal Transit Administration requirements and taxpayer expectations.

J-07/Topic SG-13 Practices for Utility Coordination in Transit Projects

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 118: Practices for Utility Coordination in Transit Projects summarizes utility coordination practices at transit agencies around the country. Specifically, the report focuses on utility coordination issues that transit agencies undertake during typical phases of project development and delivery, including planning, designing, and constructing civil infrastructure facilities.

J-07/Topic SG-14 ADA Paratransit Service Delivery Models

Approximately 80% of medium to large paratransit systems in the United States (US) use contractors for service delivery and often for call center or turnkey functions. The objective of this synthesis is to document, for a comprehensive set of service models, the way various elements of the RFP and contract are structured to enhance the likelihood of achieving certain results related to cost efficiency, service quality, or the balance of the two that will persist through the entire contract term. The synthesis will provide examples from the industry, including specific wording, of what is currently being done.

J-07/Topic SG-15 Contracting Fixed-Route Bus Transit Service
Many fixed-route transit systems choose to contract a portion or the entirety of their bus operations to one or more contractors as opposed to directly operating the service. This study will seek to determine effective practices when procuring and managing contracted service.

J-07/Topic SH-01 Transit-Focused Development

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 20: Transit-Focused Development offers information on a variety of municipalities' and transit agencies' attitudes toward the built environment around rail stations. Policy and implementation issues, completed and unimplemented projects are discussed. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2441

J-07/Topic SH-02 Use of Flexible Funding Under ISTEA and TEA-21

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 42: Use of Flexible Funds for Transfer Under ISTEA and TEA-21 reviews how current flexible funding provisions are being used to support transit investment and to examines lessons that may have the broadest relevance throughout the transit industry. The scope of the synthesis includes references to summary FTA data from FY 1992–2000, spanning the entire life of the ISTEA legislation and the first 3 years of TEA-21. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=646

J-07/Topic SH-03 Geographic Information Systems Applications in Transit

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 55: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications in Transit examines the value of GIS to transit agencies in service and cost savings. The synthesis summarizes the experiences of a variety of transit agencies, with information from small- and medium-sized transit operators, as well as from large transit agencies. It documents current practices, effective applications, and challenges.  

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=4502

J-07/Topic SH-04 Strategic Planning and Management in Transit Agencies

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 59: Strategic Planning and Management in Transit Agencies examines the value and benefits of strategic planning and management in transit agencies.  The report also provides case studies from five transit agencies based on the comprehensiveness of process or presence of innovative or noteworthy practices. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=4943

J-07/Topic SH-05 On-Board and Intercept Transit Survey Techniques

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 63: On-Board and Intercept Transit Survey Techniques examines transit agencies’ experiences with planning and implementing on-board and intercept surveys. On-board and intercept surveys include self-administered surveys distributed on board buses and railcars, and in stations, as well as interviews conducted in these environments. The report provides an overview of industry practices and covers a broad range of issues addressed in planning a given survey. 

This report is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=5680

J-07/Topic SH-06 Fixed Route Transit Ridership Forecasting and Service Planning Methods

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 66: Fixed-Route Transit Ridership Forecasting and Service Planning Methods examines the state of the practice in fixed-route transit ridership forecasting and service planning.  The report also explores forecasting methodologies, resource requirements, data inputs, and organizational issues.  In addition, the report analyzes the impacts of service changes and reviews transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methods and of desired improvements.  A link of this report is located at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=7084

J-07/Topic SH-07 Web Based Survey Techniques for Transit
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 69: Web-Based Survey Techniques explores the current state of the practice for web-based surveys.  The report examines successful practice, reviews the technologies necessary to conduct web-based surveys, and includes several case studies and profiles of transit agency use of web-based surveys.  The report also focuses on the strengths and limitations of all survey methods. A copy of this report can be found at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_syn_69.pdf

J-07/Topic SH-08 Incorporating Bus Transit Service in Planning for New Development
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 67: Bus Transit Service in Land Development Planning examines successful strategies that assist in the incorporation of bus transit service into land developments, as well as the challenges that transit agencies face when attempting to do so. The report also explores the state of the practice regarding the use and components of transit agency development guidelines.  This topic is published at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=7085


J-07/Topic SH-09 Current Practices of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Savings from Transit

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 84: Current Practices in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Savings from Transit explores the role of transit agencies in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and examines the current practice of a sample of transit agencies.

J-07/Topic SH-10 Effective Use of Citizen Advisory Committees for Transit Planning and Operations

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 85: Effective Use of Citizen Advisory Committees for Transit Planning Operations examines the involvement of advisory committees in transit planning and operations by exploring the experiences from a few agencies in detail.

J-07/Topic SH-11 Pass Fare Arrangements for Public Employees

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 82: Transit Fare Arrangements for Public Employees explores the state of the practice for transit agencies in terms of fare arrangements for public employees. The report examines issues such as leadership of the program; barriers, obstacles, and constraints; administrative procedures; implementation; lessons learned; cost, financing, and pricing; and program evaluation.

J-07/Topic SH-12 Relationships Between Street Cars and the Built Environment
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 86: Relationships Between Streetcars and the Built Environment examines selected, built streetcar and trolley systems to trace their evolution, define significant factors, and identify commonalities among levels of success in impacting the built environment.

J-07/Topic SH-13 Public Participation Strategies for Transit

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 89: Public Participation Strategies for Transit documents the state-of-the-practice in terms of public participation strategies to inform and engage the public for transit-related activities.

The synthesis also provides ideas and insights into practices and techniques that agencies have found to be most successful, and discusses challenges relating to engaging the public.

J-07/Topic SH-14 Sub-Allocating FTA Section 5307 Funding Among Multiple Recipients in Metropolitan Areas

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 113: Sub-allocating FTA Section 5307 Funding Among Multiple Recipients in Metropolitan Areas documents the approaches, methodologies, and practices for the sub-allocation of U.S. Federal Transit Administration Section 5307 Formula Funds in urbanized areas of multiple types and sizes.

Section 5307 formula funds are the primary source of financial support for public transportation capital projects including vehicle, facility, and equipment purchases; preventive maintenance; and other eligible expenses. The report also summarizes practices for fund distribution to help regions interested in developing a distribution practice or altering their current methodology.

J-07/Topic SH-15 Transit Supportive Parking Policies and Programs

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 122: Transit Supportive Parking Policies and Programs documents transit agency parking policies and parking management at transit stations using three primary resources: a scan of current research on transit supportive parking policies, an original survey distributed to a sample of transit agencies, and several brief agency profiles based on interviews and existing available data. Participating transit agencies represent a broad spectrum of service type, jurisdiction, ridership, mode, types of parking, and parking policy.

J-07/Topic SH-16 Transit Agency Practices in Interacting with People Who are Homeless

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 121: Transit Agency Practices in Interacting with People Who Are Homeless reports on effective practices, approaches, and outcomes regarding interactions within the transit industry with people who are homeless. A literature review summarizes policies and practices used in both the transit and library communities. Because public libraries are similar to public transportation in offering services to all members of the general public and in being viewed as a safe haven for people who are homeless, the literature review includes an examination of library policies and procedures related to people who are homeless.

J-07/Topic SH-17 Practices for Evaluating the Economic Impacts and Benefits of Transit

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 128: Practices for Evaluating the Economic Impacts and Benefits of Transit provides state-of-the-practice information for transit agencies to help them in incorporating economic benefits and impacts into their decision-making processes, which may lead to more sustainable funding solutions for transit agencies. The report describes the methods used for assessing transit economic impacts and benefits, the types of effects that are covered by these methods, and the ways that agencies are using the information obtained for planning, prioritizing, funding, and stakeholder support.

J-07/Topic SH-18 On-Board Survey Methods and Technologies
Recent advances in technology may allow for more detailed collection of data from riders on fixed route transit services. One of the biggest challenges for transit agencies and planning staff hoping to make decisions based on origin-destination information is the lack of completion, with sufficient detail, of the specific O-D questions.

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